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Global Rare Earth Elements Market Guide
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Rising demand for wind turbines, electronics, and electric vehicles is straining supplies of some rare earth elements. The world has become dependent on imports for rare earth minerals from China, a vast resource for rare earth elements.

Rare earth elements (REEs) are used in the integrated circuits found in most electronics and smartphones, radar technologies and missile guidance systems.

Though REE resources are distributed across the world with 36% located in China and 13% in the United States - their production is dominated by China which produces 97% of all REEs.

In an effort to control the global market for rare earth elements, China recently instituted production and export quotas to monopolize the market, and is practicing price control by limiting the supply available for export to other countries.

This report examines the Global Rare Earth Elements market, how skyrocketing demand will affect supplies, and alternatives to rare earths.

These elements are critical to civilian and military high technology applications. Although reserves are abundant, it is difficult to find them in sufficient concentrations where they can be profitably mined and processed. The process of extracting and processing rare earth elements into alloys and permanent magnets is labor and capital intensive.

As a result of China’s production dominance, REEs continue to remain supply constrained commodity. The heavier elements, in particular, are geologically scarce and likely to remain in deficit for longer than the lighter elements, which account for a much larger proportion of Chinese production and for which new sources of supply outside of China can be developed relatively easily.

The energy industry stands to be profoundly affected by the increasing demand, and reduced supply of rare earth minerals, as renewable energy technologies such as wind and solar, and electric cars, find a larger market demand.

Key Findings:
- In 2012, prices soared as China imposed severe export quotas on these minerals, basically removing them from the global marketplace. China asserts that it imposed the limits on environmental grounds.

- China did not place equal restrictions on domestic producers. The artificial export restraint resulted in triple-digit increases in worldwide prices of these minerals.

- The intended result of China’s policy is that manufacturers have incentive to base production in China. Technology-intensive companies are now incentivized to move their factories to China where these minerals are relatively cheap and accessible.

Key Findings:
- Over the next decade, demand for rare earths is expected to be driven largely by a continued shift to energy efficient green products, increased use of mobile electronics, and electric vehicles.

- Outside of China, the rest of the world continues to work toward securing rare earths production capacity but still experiences delays and high capital costs.

- In United States, the rare earths sector is likely to remain very volatile in 2012.

- Exploration of non-China-based REEs is growing. Companies such as Molycorp and Lynas are expected to commence their production in 2012 which could potentially have a significant effect on the overall REE market.

- Scientists are working to develop alternative technologies that would replace components that use rare earth elements. This report contains case studies of projects that are being funded by the DOE.




Pages: 187
Published: November 2012
Publisher: Red Mountain Insights
ISBN: 978-1-62484-013-5
Executive Summary 9
Rare Earths 101 11
What are Rare Earths? 11
Discovery of Rare Earth Elements 12
Deposit Types 13
Properties of Rare Earth Elements 13
Mineralogy 15
Metallurgy 17
Rare Earths Element and Their Uses 18
Light Rare Earths Elements (LREE) 18
Lanthanum 18
Cerium 19
Praseodymium 19
Neodymium 20
Samarium 20
Europium 21
Gadolinium 22
Heavy Rare Earths Elements (HREE) 22
Terbium 23
Dysprosium 23
Holmium 24
Erbium 24
Thulium 25
Ytterbium 25
Lutetium 26
Yttrium 26
Rare Earth Extraction Process 28
Environmental Concerns 29
Mining 29
Processing 31
Separation 33
Rare Earth and Clean Energy Technologies 36
Global Rare Earths Market 39
Global Reserves 39
Africa 41
Australia 42
Canada 42
China 43
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 43
South America 43
South and East Asia 44
United States 44
Global Consumption Forecast 45
Cerium 46
Lanthanum 48
Neodymium 50
Other Rare Earths 51
Global Production Forecast 52
Production Forecast of Key Rare Earths 54
Demand by End Use 58
Rare Earth Magnets 58
Catalysts 60
Glass and Polishing 61
Metal Alloys 62
Phosphors 63
Other Applications 64
Geographic Segmentation 65
China Rare Earths Market 67
History of Rare Earths in China 67
China’s Rare Earths Reserves 68
Production Trends 71
Production of Key Rare Earths 73
Consumption Trends 74
Key Application Areas 76
Magnets 76
Automotive and Industrial Catalysts 78
Polishing powders 79
Metal alloys 80
Phosphors 82
Others 83
China’s Rare-Earth Development Plan 84
Policy Trends in China 86
Production Control 86
Export Quota 87
Export Tax Polices 89
Integration 91
Stockpiles 91
Resource Tax 91
Chinese Policy and Global Implications 92
Domestic Pricing 93
Domestic Competition 94
Other Rare Earths Markets 96
North America 96
United States 98
Europe 100
Australia 103
India 105
Japan 108
Rare Earth Pricing Trends 112
Historic Trends 112
Pricing Forecast 113
Investing in Rare Earths Projects 115
Sources of Funding 115
Overcoming Supply Challenges 118
Diversify Global Supply Chains 118
Recycling 118
Recycling Case Study: Honda and the Japan Metals & Chemicals Co 120
Product Redesign 121
Substitution 122
Nanotechnology Magnets 122
US Department of Energy (ARPA-E) Projects 122
Ames National Laboratory 123
Argonne National Laboratory 123
Baldor Electric Company 124
Brookhaven National Laboratory 124
Case Western Reserve University 124
Dartmouth College 125
Northeastern University 125
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 126
QM Power, Inc. 126
University of Alabama 127
University of Houston 127
University of Minnesota 128
Virginia Commonwealth University 128
Company Profiles 129
Competitive Landscape 129
Alkane Resources Ltd. 130
Arafura Resources Ltd. 131
Avalon Rare Metals 133
China Minmetals Rare Earth Co., Ltd. 135
China Rare Earth Holdings Limited 137
Commerce Resources Corp. 138
Frontier Rare Earths Limited 141
Great Western Minerals Group Ltd. 143
Greenland Minerals and Energy 145
Indian Rare Earths Limited 147
Inner Mongolia Baotou Steel Rare Earth Hi-Tech 150
Lynas Corporation Limited 152
Matamec Explorations Inc. 153
Molycorp, Inc. 155
Neo Material Technologies Inc. 158
Quest Rare Minerals Ltd. 159
Rare Element Resources Ltd. 162
Stans Energy Corp. 164
Tasman Metals Ltd. 165
Recent News Coverage 169
Demand-Supply Balance Forecast 169
Appendix 179
Etymology 179
Glossary 180
Alkane Resources Ltd.
Arafura Resources Ltd.
Avalon Rare Metals
China Minmetals Rare Earth Co., Ltd.
China Rare Earth Holdings Limited
Commerce Resources Corp.
Frontier Rare Earths Limited
Great Western Minerals Group Ltd.
Greenland Minerals and Energy
Indian Rare Earths Limited
Inner Mongolia Baotou Steel Rare Earth Hi-Tech
Lynas Corporation Limited
Matamec Explorations Inc.
Molycorp, Inc.
Neo Material Technologies Inc.
Quest Rare Minerals Ltd.
Rare Element Resources Ltd.
Stans Energy Corp.
Ames National Laboratory
Argonne National Laboratory
Baldor Electric Company
Brookhaven National Laboratory
Case Western Reserve University
Dartmouth College
Northeastern University
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
QM Power, Inc.
University of Alabama
University of Houston
University of Minnesota
Virginia Commonwealth University
ORDER NOW
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$97
Single User Print -
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Global License -
$297
Print order form to pay by check


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