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Opportunities in U.S. Clean Energy Markets - Volume I: Analysis of U.S. Clean Tech Industry
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Red Mountain Insights is proud to offer a two-volume research and analysis report aimed at companies seeking to create or leverage business opportunities in the United States Clean Technology Industry.

Buy each volume individually, or purchase together and save.

VOLUME I:
Volume I provides an overview of the energy and renewable power landscape in the U.S. It includes an explanation of the Trends, Impacts, Industry Forces and Challenges in the U.S. Energy Industry.

It discusses how the government has responded to the energy crises through Policy Resolutions. It also provides SWAT, PEST and Michael Porter Analyses of the U.S. Energy industry, the U.S. renewables industry broken down into sector.

Next, it details regulatory policies relating to the clean technology industry, then provides an outlook of the Clean Tech industry based on current data and assumptions.
Section 2 of Volume One provides background, challenges, trends, project profiles, market incentives, investor recommendations, and state-by-state analysis of all clean tech markets including: wind, solar, fuel cells, biomass, ethanol, biomass, biodiesel, geothermal, hydroelectric, distributed generation, microgrids, demand-side management, cogeneration/CHP, waste-to-energy, waste management, and smart grid integration and technologies.

In this comprehensive 1,100 page volume you’ll develop a solid understanding of the United States’ Clean Technology section that will enable you to identify market opportunities.

Professionals in the U.S. and global energy industry will find this research to be a valuable resource to explore profit, partnership and investment opportunities in United States Clean Technology industries.

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VOLUME II - Purchase separately, or save by purchasing BOTH Volumes.

Volume II is a comprehensive report detailing Federal and State investment incentives.

It includes a section on how to conduct business in the U.S. Clean Tech industry as a foreign firm, providing details on funding sources, how to identify U.S. investment partners, and tax incentives.

It provides profiles of companies operating in the U.S. clean tech industry, sector-by-sector.

Finally, it lists clean technology and renewable energy industry events, trade shows and conferences.


Pages: 1100
Published: June 2013
Publisher: Red Mountain Insights
ISBN: 978-1-62484-039-5
Understanding Opportunities in U.S. Clean Technology Sectors

Volume I

Table of Contents

Section 1: Overview of the Energy and Renewable Energy Landscape in the United States 63
Executive Summary 65
1. Overview of the Renewable Energy Market in the United States 68
1.1 Introduction to the Industry 68
1.2 Requirement for Renewables in the U.S. 70
1.3 Market and Technology Trends 73
1.3.1 Falling Prices of Oil and Gas Lead to Decreased Demand for Renewable Energy 74
1.3.2 U.S. Electrical Grid Modernization – A Necessity for Renewable Energy Growth 75
1.3.3 Impact of the 2008 Financial Crisis on Renewables Sector 76
1.3.4 Legislative Support 76
1.3.5 Lower Prices for Carbon Emissions Trading across Europe 77
1.3.6 Institutional and Industry Support from President Obama 77
1.3.7 Investment from China 77
1.3.8 Pricing of Alternatives to Renewable Energy 78
1.3.9 GHG Emissions 78
1.4 Integration of Renewable Energy in the U.S. 78
2. Trends, Impacts, Industry Forces and Challenges in the U.S. Energy Industry 82
2.1 Impacts on the Industry 82
2.2 Issues Facing the Industry 83
2.3 Industry Trends 90
2.4 Growth Opportunities in the Industry 93
2.5 Competitive Forces Impacting the Industry 94
3. Policy Resolutions to the U.S. Energy Crisis 96
3.1 Supply-Side Resolutions 96
3.2 Demand-Side Resolutions 97
3.3 Resolving Cost Issues 97
3.4 Resolving Regulatory and Legal Issues 98
3.5 Boosting Industry Performance through Government Programs 99
3.6 Conclusion 99
4. SWOT Analysis – U.S. Energy Industry 101
4.1 Strengths 101
4.2 Weaknesses 102
4.3 Opportunities 103
4.4 Threats 104
5. SWOT Analysis – U.S. Renewable Energy Industry 108
5.1 Strengths 108
5.2 Weaknesses 109
5.3 Opportunities 110
5.4 Threats 111
6. SWOT Analysis of Top 5 Renewable Technologies 113
6.1 Wind Power 113
6.2 Solar 114
6.3 Geothermal 114
6.4 Biomass 115
6.5 Small Hydro 116
6.6 In-depth Analysis derived from SWOT 116
7. PEST Analysis – U.S. Energy Industry 120
7.1 Political Features 120
7.2 Economic Features 126
7.3 Social Features 127
7.4 Technological Features 128
8. Michael Porter’s Five Forces Analysis – U.S. Energy Industry 130
8.1 Bargaining Power of Buyers 130
8.2 Bargaining Power of Suppliers 131
8.3 Competitive Rivalry in the Industry 133
8.4 Threat of New Entrants 134
8.5 Threat of Substitutes 135
8.6 Conclusion 135
9. Renewable Energy Policy in the United States 136
9.1 Introduction 136
9.2 History of U.S.’ Energy Policy 137
9.3 Looking at U.S. Energy Independence 138
9.3.1 Dealing with Terrorism, Embargo and Other Factors 139
9.3.2 Tactics Being Applied 140
9.3.3 Drawbacks and Criticisms 141
9.4 U.S. Relations with Oil-Producing Countries 141
9.5 U.S. Budget & the Energy Sector 142
10. U.S. States Production of Electricity from Renewable Energy 144
11. Regulatory Policies Impacting the Clean Technology Sector 148
11.1 California Solar Initiative 148
11.2 EPA Initiatives 150
11.3 Green Power Partnership 151
11.4 Renewable Portfolio Standards 152
11.5 Solar America Initiative 164
11.6 Feed-in-Tariffs 165
11.7 New Energy Frontier 173
11.8 Minerals Management Service’s Program 176
11.9 U.S. Geological Survey’s Program 177
11.10 Fish and Wildlife Service’s Program 177
11.11 DOE Wind Program 178
11.12 DOE Geothermal Technologies Program 186
11.13 Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 186
11.14 Clean Air Act 187
11.15 Energy Policy Act of 1992 187
11.16 Energy Policy Act of 2005 188
11.17 Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 194
11.18 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 194
11.19 Fuel Cell Initiatives by the U.S. DOE 201
12. Outlook for U.S. Clean Technology Market 203
12.1 Government and Institutional Outlook 203
12.2 Outlook by Industry Trade Associations 204
12.3 Investing Potential of the Industry 206
12.4 Outlook for Technological Innovation 210
12.5 Long-Term Energy Projections 212
12.6 Achieving a Sustainable Electric Generation Portfolio through Renewables 215
12.7 Wind Power Market Outlook 217
12.8 Solar Power Market Outlook 222
12.9 Hydropower Market Outlook 224
12.10 Geothermal Energy Market Outlook 227
12.11 Biomass Market Outlook 229
12.12 Biodiesel Market Outlook 231
12.13 Future of the Ethanol Industry 232
12.14 Future of the U.S. Energy Industry 233
12.15 Future Prospects for Renewable Energy 235
12.16 U.S.’ 25x’25 Vision 238
Section 2: Analysis of Wind Power in the U.S. 241
1. Wind Power Sector in the United States 242
1.1 Market Profile 242
1.2 Wind Power Generation in the U.S. 245
1.3 Installed Capacity Growth 247
1.4 Wind Resources 250
1.5 Wind Power Transmission and Integration 253
1.6 Wind Energy in the Electrical Energy Mix 255
1.7 New Wind Installations 256
1.8 Wind vs. Traditional Electricity Generation 257
1.9 Wind Turbine Manufacturing in the U.S. 257
1.10 Role of the Federal Production Tax Credit 259
1.11 Offshore Wind Power in the U.S. 259
1.12 Role of Wind in the Energy Market 260
1.13 Economics of Wind Energy in the U.S. 262
1.14 Financing Alternatives for Wind Power 264
2. Trends in the Wind Power Market 270
2.1 Growing Demand for Energy 270
2.2 Increasing Cost Competitiveness 271
2.3 Global Climate Change 272
2.4 Renewable Quota System 273
2.5 Trends in Offshore Development 273
2.6 Merchant Projects 274
2.7 “Inside the Fence” Projects 275
2.8 Small Wind Turbines 275
2.8.1 Applications of SWTs 279
2.8.2 Market for SWTs 282
2.8.3 Hybrid Small Wind Turbines 282
2.8.4 Very Small Wind Turbines 282
2.8.5 Wind-Diesel Hybrid Turbine Systems 283
2.8.6 Cost of Small Wind Turbines 284
2.8.7 Factors Impacting the U.S. Market 284
2.8.8 Government Incentives 295
2.8.9 SWT Market Trends 296
3. Challenges Facing the Wind Power Industry in the U.S. 298
3.1 Permitting Difficulty 298
3.2 Transmission Limitations 298
3.3 Risk Aversion 298
4. Grid Impact and Integration of Micro Wind Generation in the U.S. 300
4.1 Introduction 300
4.2 Case Study: University of Salerno Campus 301
4.3 Measurement, Communication and Monitoring System 302
4.4.1 Technical Details 306
4.5 Conclusion 310
5. Analysis of Wind Power by State 311
5.1 Arizona 311
5.2 California 311
5.3 Colorado 313
5.4 Illinois 315
5.5 Indiana 316
5.6 Iowa 317
5.7 Kansas 321
5.8 Maine 322
5.9 Massachusetts 323
5.10 Minnesota 323
5.11 Montana 324
5.12 New Hampshire 325
5.13 New York 326
5.14 Ohio 327
5.15 Oregon 328
5.16 Pennsylvania 331
5.17 Texas 333
5.18 Vermont 337
5.19 Washington 338
5.20 Wyoming 340
6. Profiles of Wind Farms in the U.S. 342
6.1 Altamont Pass Wind Farm 342
6.2 Alta Wind Energy Center 342
6.3 Benton County Wind Farm 343
6.4 Biglow Canyon Wind Farm 343
6.5 Big Horn Wind Farm 345
6.6 Blue Canyon Wind Farm 345
6.7 Blue Sky Green Field Wind Farm 346
6.8 Brazos Wind Ranch 347
6.9 Buffalo Gap Wind Farm 348
6.10 Buffalo Ridge Wind Farm 349
6.11 Capricorn Ridge Wind Farm 350
6.12 Cedar Creek Wind Farm 350
6.13 Desert Sky Wind Farm 350
6.14 Dutch Hill/Cohocton Wind Farm 351
6.15 Enbridge Ontario Wind Farm 352
6.16 Fenton Wind Farm 352
6.17 Forward Wind Energy Center 353
6.18 Fowler Ridge Wind Farm 353
6.19 Glacier Wind Farm 354
6.20 Green Mt. Energy Wind Farm 354
6.21 Gulf Wind Farm 355
6.22 Hackberry Wind Project 355
6.23 Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center 355
6.24 Intrepid Wind Farm 356
6.25 Judith Gap Wind Farm 356
6.26 Kibby Wind Power Project 357
6.27 King Mountain Wind Farm 358
6.28 Klondike Wind Farm 359
6.29 Lone Star Wind Farm 359
6.27 Locust Ridge Wind Farm 359
6.30 Maple Ridge Wind Farms I and II 360
6.31 Marengo Wind Farm 360
6.32 Meadow Lake Wind Farm 360
6.33 Milford Wind Corridor Project 361
6.34 Mount Storm Wind Farm 361
6.35 New Mexico Wind Energy Center 362
6.36 Panther Creek Wind Farm 362
6.37 Peetz Wind Farm 363
6.38 Peñascal Wind Farm 363
6.39 Pioneer Prairie Wind Farm 363
6.40 Roscoe Wind Farm 363
6.41 San Gorgonio Pass Wind Farm 364
6.42 Sherbino Wind Farm 364
6.43 Shiloh Wind Farm 365
6.44 Smoky Hills Wind Farm 365
6.45 Stateline Wind Project 366
6.46 Story County Wind Farm 366
6.47 Streator Cayuga Ridge South Wind Farm 367
6.48 Sweetwater Wind Farm 367
6.49 Tatanka Wind Farm 367
6.50 Tehachapi Pass Wind Farm 367
6.51 Trent Wind Farm 368
6.52 Twin Groves Wind Farms I and II 368
6.53 Walnut Wind Farm 369
6.54 Wethersfield Wind Park 369
6.55 Whispering Willow Wind Farm 369
6.56 Windy Point/Windy Flats 370
6.57 White Creek Wind Power Project 370
6.58 Wild Horse Wind Farm 371
6.59 Wildorado Wind Ranch 372
7. Analysis of the Liberty Wind Turbine 373
8. Industry Outlook 375
Section 3: Analysis of Solar Power in the U.S. 381
1. Solar Power Sector in the United States 382
1.1 Market Profile 382
1.2 Solar Resource 383
1.3 Industry Growth 384
1.4 Solar Thermal Plants in the U.S. 386
1.5 Solar Photovoltaics in the U.S. 389
1.6 Industry and Growth 393
2. Solar Power and the Consumer Energy Market 398
3. Emerging Solar Power Technologies 400
3.1 Plasmonic Solar Cells 406
3.1.1 Applications of Plasmonic Solar Cells 406
3.1.2 Recent Developments in Plasmonic Solar Cells 407
3.2 Photoelectrochemical Cells 410
3.2.1 Types of Photoelectrochemical Cell 410
3.3 String Ribbon Solar Cells 411
3.3.1 Reducing the Cost of Solar Cells with String Ribbon 412
3.3.2 Technology Behind String Ribbon Solar Cells 413
3.4 Hybrid Solar Cells 415
3.4.1 Types of Hybrid Solar Cells 416
3.4.2 Case Study: Improving the Efficiency of Hybrid Solar Cells 417
3.5 Polymer Solar Cells 418
3.5.1 Physical Properties of Polymer Solar Cells 419
3.5.2 Architecture of a Polymer Solar Cell 420
3.5.3 Market for Polymer Solar Cells 421
3.5.4 Conclusion 421
3.6 Carbon Nanotubes 421
3.6.1 Different Types of Carbon Nanotubes 422
3.6.2 Applications of Carbon Nanotubes 423
3.7 Carbon Nanotubes and Photovoltaics 423
3.7.1 Usage of Carbon Nanotubes as Transparent Electrode 423
3.7.2 Usage of Carbon Nanotubes in DSSCs 424
3.8 Nanopillars 425
3.8.1 Relation between Nanopillars and Better Solar Cells 425
3.8.2 Three-Dimensional Nanopillar-Array PV 427
3.9 Thin Film Solar Cells 428
3.9.1 Types of Thin Film Solar Cells 428
3.9.2 Copper Indium Gallium Selenide 432
3.9.3 Dye-sensitized Solar Cell 432
3.9.4 Organic Solar Cell 433
3.9.5 Thin-film Silicon 433
3.9.6 Efficiency Factor and Price of Thin Film Solar Cells 433
3.9.7 Dye-Sensitized Thin Film Solar Cells 436
3.9.8 Nanotechnology and Thin Film Solar Cells 436
3.10 Quantum Dot Solar Cells 438
3.10.1 Applications of Quantum Dots 439
3.10.2 Quantum Wells and Superlattices 442
3.10.3 Case Study: NASA’s Research into Quantum Dots for Solar Cells 443
3.10.4 Case Study: Creation of ‘Rainbow’ Solar Cells 444
3.10.5 Conclusion 445
3.11 Miniature Solar Cells 446
3.11.1 Miniature Silicon Solar Cells to Increase the Efficiency of Tandem Cells 446
3.11.2 Case Study: Radio Sensor Powered by a Miniature Solar Cell 447
3.11.3 Case Study: Miniature Solar Cell Powered Devices for the Army 447
3.12 Organic Photovoltaics 448
3.13 Nanowire Solar Cells 450
3.14 Quantum Well Solar Cells 452
3.14.1 Quantum Well Concentrator Solar Cells by QuantaSol 453
3.15 Flexible Solar Cells 454
3.16 Nanostructured Coating 455
3.17 Nanoplasmonic Solar Cells 455
3.18 Holographic Solar Concentrator Technology 456
3.19 Silicon Foil Technology 458
4. Incentives for Solar Power 459
4.1 Overview 459
4.2 Federal Tax Credits 460
4.3 Solar America Initiative 461
4.4 SunShot Initiative 462
4.5 Incentives on the State-level 463
4.6 Feed-in Tariff 465
4.7 Solar Renewable Energy Certificates 465
4.8 Power Purchase Agreement 465
5. What Investors Should Know About Solar 467
6. Analysis of Solar Power by State 469
6.1 Arizona 469
6.2 California 471
6.3 Hawaii 475
6.4 Nevada 478
6.5 New Jersey 479
6.6 New Mexico 482
6.7 Oregon 484
7. Programs Promoting Solar Power in the U.S. 487
7.1 U.S. DOE SunShot Initiative 487
7.2 U.S. DOE Solar Decathlon 490
7.3 Open PV Mapping Project 492
7.4 205 Kilowatt (kW) Installation 492
7.5 Utility Solar Water Heating Initiative 494
8. Profiles of Solar Thermal Power Plants in the U.S. 495
8.1 Blythe Solar Power Project 495
8.2 Calico Solar Energy Project 496
8.3 Fort Irwin 497
8.4 Ivanpah Solar Power Facility 498
8.5 Keahole Solar Power 500
8.6 Kimberlina Solar Thermal Energy Plant 500
8.7 Martin Next Generation Solar Energy Center 501
8.8 Mojave Solar Park 502
8.9 Nevada Solar One 504
8.10 Saguaro Solar Power Station 505
8.11 Sierra SunTower 506
8.12 Solana Generating Station 509
8.13 Solar Energy Generating Systems 511
8.14 The Solar Project 513
8.15 Solnova Solar Power Station 515
8.16 Extresol Solar Power Station 516
8.17 Valle Solar Power Station 516
9. Industry Outlook 518
Section 4: Analysis of Fuel Cells in the U.S. 522
1. Fuel Cells Sector in the United States 523
1.1 History of Fuel Cells 523
1.2 Designing Fuel Cells 524
1.3 Technology behind Fuel Cells 525
2. Types of Fuel Cells 530
2.1 Alkaline Fuel Cell 530
2.2 Direct Borohydride Fuel Cell 532
2.3 Direct Ethanol Fuel Cell 532
2.4 Direct Methanol Fuel Cell 534
2.5 Electro-galvanic Fuel Cell 535
2.6 Flow Battery 535
2.7 Formic Acid Fuel Cell 536
2.8 Fuel Cells Minus Membranes 537
2.9 Metal Air Fuel Cells 538
2.10 Metal Hydride Fuel Cell 538
2.11 Microbial Fuel Cell 539
2.12 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell 542
2.13 Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell 544
2.14 Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells 545
2.15 Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell 546
2.16 Protonic Ceramic Fuel Cell 547
2.17 Regenerative Fuel Cells 547
2.18 Reversible Fuel Cell 548
2.19 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell 549
2.20 Zinc-Air Fuel Cells 551
3. Challenges Facing the U.S. Fuel Cells Industry 553
3.1 Design Issues 553
3.2 Cost Issues 554
3.3 Reliability and Durability Issues 555
3.4 Storage Issues 555
3.5 Size and Weight Issues 556
3.6 Fuel Flexibility 556
3.7 Low Operating Temperatures 557
3.8 Public Support 557
4. R&D and Investing 558
4.1 Fuel Cells VC and Public Market Investment 560
4.2 Fuel Cell Stocks Performance 565
6. Initiatives for Fuel Cells by State 567
5.1 Alaska 567
5.2 Arizona 568
5.3 Arkansas 571
5.4 California 572
5.5 Colorado 583
5.6 Connecticut 586
5.7 Delaware 591
5.8 District of Columbia 594
5.9 Florida 594
5.10 Georgia 597
5.11 Hawaii 598
5.12 Idaho 604
5.13 Illinois 605
5.14 Indiana 608
5.15 Iowa 610
5.16 Louisiana 611
5.17 Maine 611
5.18 Maryland 612
5.19 Massachusetts 613
5.20 Michigan 617
5.21 Minnesota 620
5.22 Mississippi 622
5.23 Missouri 623
5.24 Montana 624
5.25 Nebraska 627
5.26 Nevada 627
5.27 New Jersey 628
5.28 New Mexico 631
5.29 New York 636
5.30 North Carolina 639
5.31 North Dakota 641
5.32 Ohio 641
5.33 Oklahoma 644
5.34 Oregon 644
5.35 Pennsylvania 646
5.36 Rhode Island 649
5.37 South Carolina 650
5.38 South Dakota 651
5.39 Tennessee 651
6.40 Texas 652
5.41 Utah 653
5.42 Virginia 654
5.43 Washington 655
5.44 West Virginia 657
5.45 Wisconsin 658
5.46 Wyoming 659
6. Industry Outlook 661
6.1 Role of Fuel Cells in Future Cars 662
Section 5: Analysis of Biofuels in the U.S. 665
1. Biofuels Sector in the United States 666
1.1 Market Profile 666
1.2 Industry Production and Capacity Utilization 667
1.3 Industry Structure and Concentration 674
1.4 Opportunities and Issues in the Biofuel Sector 677
1.5 Government Funding Opportunities 679
2. Ethanol Market 680
2.1 Tax Incentives for Ethanol 680
2.2 Corn – The Largest Feedstock in U.S. Ethanol Production 682
2.3 Regulatory Policies Promoting Ethanol Production and Use 684
2.3.1 Renewable Fuel Standard 684
2.3.2 State Waivers 688
2.3.3 Ethanol Provisions 689
2.3.4 MTBE 689
2.3.5 Renewable Energy 689
2.3.6 Biomass Funding 689
2.4 Markets for Ethanol By-Products 690
2.5 Market Outlook 694
3. Biodiesel Market 696
4. Market for Methanol Fuel 700
5. Market for Butanol 701
6. Subsidies for Ethanol and Biodiesel 702
6.1 Development of Federal Regulations 702
6.2 Historical Perspective 707
6.3 Present-Day Subsidies 711
6.3.1 Support Based on Market Output 711
6.3.2 Subsidies Based on Production Factors 714
6.3.3 Regulations Impacting Price of Intermediate Inputs 716
6.3.4 Subsidies Based on Consumption 717
6.4 Conclusion 718
7. Industry Outlook 719
Section 6: Analysis of Biomass Power in the U.S. 720
1. Biomass Sector in the United States 721
1.1 What is Biomass? 721
1.2 Technical Aspects of Biomass 722
1.3 Combustion Theory 722
1.4 Technologies Involved 724
1.5 Production of Charcoal 725
1.6 Briquetting 725
1.7 Animal Waste 725
1.8 Commercial Utilization of Biomass 726
2. Issues and Challenges Facing the Industry in the U.S. 727
2.1 Biomass Energy and the Environment 727
2.2 Women, Woodfuel, Work and Welfare 727
2.3. Biomass Energy: Cost and Scale Issues 729
4. Industry Outlook 730
Section 7: Analysis of Geothermal Power in the U.S. 733
1. Geothermal Energy Sector in the United States 734
1.1 Market Profile 734
1.2 Geothermal Plants in the U.S. 734
1.3 Geothermal Capacity 740
1.4 Capacity Factor of Geothermal Energy 741
1.5 Environmental Impact 741
2. Policy Drivers for Geothermal Energy 742
2.1 State/Federal Renewable Standards 742
2.2 Federal Tax Incentives 743
2.3 Federal Permitting 743
3. Industry Outlook 745
Section 8: Analysis of Hydropower in the U.S. 747
1. Hydroelectric Power Sector in the United States 748
1.1 Market Profile 748
1.2 How Hydroelectric Power Plants Work in the U.S. 750
1.3 Head and Flow Concept 753
1.4 Energy Storage 753
1.5 Pumped Storage Systems 754
1.6 Hydropower Production in the U.S. 754
1.7 Hydropower for Baseload Power in the U.S. 755
1.8 Economics of Hydropower in the U.S. 756
1.9 Hydropower and the Environment 757
2. Other Hydro Resources in the U.S. 759
2.1 Tidal Energy 759
2.2 Wave Energy 760
2.3 Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion 760
2.4 Small Hydro 761
3. Hydroelectric Power Stations in the U.S. 762
3.1 Bath County PSP 762
3.2 Chief Joseph Dam 763
3.3 Grand Coulee 764
3.4 Hoover Dam 768
3.5 John Day Dam 770
3.6 Robert Moses Niagara Power Plant 771
3.7 The Dalles Dam 774
4. Industry Outlook 776
Section 9: Analysis of Distributed Generation Technologies and Microgrids in the U.S. 777
1. What is Distributed Generation? 778
1.1 Overview 778
1.2 Economies of Scale 778
1.3 Localized Generation 778
1.4 Distributed Energy Resources 779
1.5 Cost Economics 780
1.6 Welcome to the Microgrid 780
1.7 Types of Power Generation 781
1.7.1 Combined Heat Power (CHP) 781
1.7.2 Fuel Cells 785
1.7.3 Micro Combined Heat and Power (MicroCHP) 785
1.7.4 Microturbines 788
1.7.5 Photovoltaic Systems 790
1.7.6 Reciprocating Engines 790
1.7.7 Small Wind Power Systems 791
1.7.8 Stirling Engines 792
1.8 Distributed Generation and Renewable Energy Sources in the U.S. 799
1.9 Economic Dispatch 801
1.10 Legal Requirements in the U.S. for Distributed Generation 803
2. Microgrids in the U.S. 804
2.1 Introduction 804
2.2 Impacts of Microgrids on Service Quality 805
2.3 Impacts of Microgrids on Expansion Planning 805
2.4 Microgrids Operation 806
2.4.1 Microgrids Control Levels 806
2.4.2 Islanded vs. Interconnected Mode of Operation 808
2.4.3 Management of Voltage and Frequency 808
2.4.4 Role of IT 809
3. Microgrid Designs in the U.S. 810
3.1 Standardization of Technical and Commercial Protocols and Hardware 810
3.2 Safety and Protection 810
3.3 Modeling and Simulation of Microgrids 810
4. Microgrid Ownership Models in the U.S. 812
5. Analysis of a Microgrid with Photovoltaics, Fuel Cells, and Energy Efficiency 814
5.1 Introduction 814
5.2 System Description 814
5.3 Economics of the System 816
5.4 Annual, Monthly, and Hourly Match Between Supply and Demand 818
5.5 Reliability of the System 821
5.6 Conclusion 824
6. Using Distributed Energy Technologies for E-Related Applications 825
6.1 Introduction 825
6.2 History of Distributed Energy Generation Technologies 825
6.3 Application for the Microgrid 826
6.4 Application for Premium Power Services 826
6.5 Application for Microturbine Generators 827
7. How Micro-Systems are Driving Smart Metering in Smart Grids 828
7.1 Introduction 828
7.2 Emergence of a Smart Microgrid 831
7.3 Using the Technologies for Metering and Monitoring 837
7.4 Visualization of Metering Data 839
7.5 Energy Control 842
7.6 Challenges for Future Smart Grid Technologies 843
8. Emergence of Integrated Demand Side Management, Distributed Generation, Renewable Energy Sources, and Energy Storage 846
8.1 Introduction 846
8.2 Integrating with Smart Meter Deployment 854
8.3 Interoperability 856
8.4 Automation of Distributed Energy Resources 856
8.5 Primary Process Feedback 857
8.6 Intelligent Agents and Distributed Controllers 858
8.7 DER/EMS Management System 859
8.8 Understanding Relative Costs and Benefits of Distributed Energy Businesses 860
8.9 Incentives and Subsidies 862
8.10 DER Business Opportunities for Italian Companies in the U.S. 865
8.10.1 Market-based DER 865
8.10.2 Business Models Examples 866
9. Role of the Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory in the Industry 868
10. Industry Outlook 870
Section 10: Analysis of Combined Heat and Power/Cogeneration in the U.S. 871
1. CHP/Cogeneration Sector in the United States 872
1.1 What is CHP? 872
1.2 History of CHP in the U.S. 874
1.3 Types of Cogeneration Plants in Use in the U.S. 876
1.3.1 Micro CHP 877
1.3.2 Mini CHP 877
1.4 CHP Technologies in the U.S. 877
1.5 Applications of CHP 878
1.6 What Does a CHP System Produce? 878
2. Analysis of CHP Systems in Use in the U.S. 880
2.1 Overview 880
2.2 Steam Turbines 882
2.3 Reciprocating Engines 882
2.4 Gas Turbines 882
2.5 Microturbines 883
2.6 Fuel Cells 883
3. CHP Market in the U.S. 884
3.1 Market Overview 884
3.2 Regulatory and Market Challenges Facing CHP 884
3.3 CHP and District Energy 885
3.4 CHP and District Heating 886
4. Energy Situation in the U.S. and Role of CHP 888
4.1 Overview 888
4.2 Rising Energy Demand 890
4.3 Restraints on Existing Energy Sources 890
4.4 Competition in the Global Energy Markets 891
4.5 Dealing with Climate Change 891
4.6 Requirement for Modern Infrastructure 892
4.7 Energy Efficiency and CHP 892
5. Mini and Micro-Gas Turbines for CHP 893
5.1 Introduction 893
5.2 Pros and Cons of Micro-Turbines and CHP 894
5.3 Market for Micro-Turbines in the U.S. 895
5.4 Elements of a Micro-Turbine Generator 896
5.5 Current and Future Status of the Technology 900
5.6 Conclusion 901
6. Market Mechanism for Energy Allocation in Micro-CHP Grids in the U.S. 902
6.1 Introduction 902
6.2 Application for a Market-based Micro CHP Grid 903
6.3 Market Outlook 907
7. CHP and Emissions Trading in the U.S. 908
7.1 Emissions Trading in the U.S. 908
7.2 Role of CHP in Emissions Trading 909
7.3 Challenges Facing CHP in its Role in Emissions Trading 909
7.3.1 Increase in Onsite Emissions and Decrease in Global Emissions 909
7.3.2 Distinguishing between Different Economic Sectors 910
7.3.3 Boundaries for Inclusion of CHP in an ETS 910
8. Why CHP is the Competitive Solution for the U.S. 911
8.1 Overview 911
8.2 Economic Benefits for the U.S. 911
8.3 Dealing with Local Energy Issues with CHP 912
8.3.1 Overview 912
8.3.2 Potential CHP Capacity 912
8.3.3 Increasing Role of CHP in Generation 914
8.4 Transition to Modernized Infrastructure 914
8.4.1 Overview 914
8.4.2 Location of Energy Resources near Demand 914
8.4.3 Utilities and Grid Benefits 915
8.4.4 Increasing the Efficiency of the Power Grid 915
8.5 Challenges Facing CHP Adoption in the U.S. 916
8.5.1 Regulation of Fees and Tariffs 916
8.5.2 Issues dealing with Grid Integration 917
8.5.3 Environmental Regulations 917
8.5.4 Taxation Issues 918
8.5.5 Technical Challenges 918
8.6 Requirement for Further R&D 919
9. Regulations Aiding the Growth of CHP 920
9.1 Interconnection 920
9.2 Greenhouse Gas Policy Mechanisms 920
9.3 Investment Tax Credits 921
9.4 Proper Emissions Treatment of CHP 921
9.5 Renewable Portfolio Standards 922
10. CHP Regulation in the U.S. 923
10.1 Regulations and CHP 923
10.2 Energy Inputs in CHP 924
10.3 Energy Outputs in CHP 925
10.4 Role of Regulation in CHP 926
10.5 Looking at the Traditional Regulatory Framework 927
10.6 Looking at the Emerging Regulatory Framework 928
10.6.1 Broadening Wholesale Competition: The 1992 Energy Policy Act and IPPs 929
10.6.2 Moving Toward Retail Competition: State Electricity Restructuring Initiatives 930
10.7 Restructuring of Electricity in the U.S. 932
10.8 Restructuring Challenges in CHP 932
11. CHP and Energy Portfolio Standards 942
11.1 What are Energy Portfolio Standards? 942
11.2 Role of RPS 943
11.3 RPS States that Include CHP & States with CHP Experience 944
11.3.1 California 944
11.3.2 Connecticut 946
11.3.3 Hawaii 948
11.3.4 Maine 949
11.3.5 Minnesota 951
11.3.6 Nevada 953
11.3.7 New York 955
11.3.8 Pennsylvania 958
11.3.9 Washington 961
12. DOE’s Distribution and Interconnection Research and Development Activities 963
12.1 Renewable System Interconnection Study 963
13. Industry Outlook 965
Section 11: Analysis of Waste-to-Energy in the U.S. 967
1. Waste-to-Energy Sector in the United States 968
1.1 Introduction 968
1.2 Incineration – Common WtE Implementation 968
1.3 Other WtE Technologies 969
1.3.1 Thermal Technologies 969
1.3.2 Non-thermal Technologies 982
1.3.3 Chemical Technologies 986
1.4 Typical Waste-to-Energy Power Plant 987
1.5 Issue of CO2 Emissions 989
1.6 Environmental Regulations in the U.S. 991
2. Waste-to-Energy Market Overview in the U.S. 993
3. Technological Developments 995
3.1 EnerTech – SlurryCarb™ Process 995
3.2 EcoEnergy Oy – Wabio Process 995
3.3 Centre Nationale de Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) – Valgora Process 995
3.4 Convertech Group – Convertech Process 996
3.5 Martin GmbH – SynCom Process 996
4. Industry Trends 997
5. Debate over Waste-to-Energy in the U.S. – Is Waste-to-Energy a Source of Renewable Energy? 998
6. Harnessing Waste with Low-Btu Reciprocating Gas Engine Generators 1002
6.1 Introduction 1002
6.2 Harnessing the Potential of Methane 1002
6.3 Role of Reciprocating Engine Generators 1003
6.4 Question of Site Suitability 1004
6.5 Impact of Contaminants 1005
6.6 Conclusion 1007
7. Case Studies 1008
7.1 Montgomery County Resource Recovery Facility 1008
7.2 Waste-to-Energy Solution at U.S. Virgin Islands 1008
7.3 Waste-to-Energy System in Baltimore, Maryland 1010
7.4 Waste-to-Energy Plant in Pinellas County, Florida 1010
8. Waste-to-Energy Industry Outlook 1012
Section 12: Analysis of Waste Management in the U.S. 1015
1. Waste Management Sector in the U.S. 1016
1.1 What is Waste Management? 1016
1.2 Waste Disposal Methods 1016
1.2.1 Integrated Waste Management 1016
1.2.2 Landfill 1016
1.2.3 Incineration 1017
1.2.4 Recycling 1018
1.2.5 Biological Reprocessing 1018
1.2.6 Energy Recovery 1019
1.2.7 Waste Avoidance 1019
1.3 Technologies Involved in the Industry 1021
2. Waste Management Concepts 1022
2.1 Waste Hierarchy 1022
2.2 Extended Producer Responsibility 1024
2.3 Polluter Pays Principle 1029
3. Solid Waste Management in the U.S. 1030
3.1 Introduction 1030
3.2 Infrastructure for Solid Waste Infrastructure 1030
3.3 Waste Generation and Composition 1030
3.4 Waste Management Techniques 1031
3.5 Conclusion 1036
Section 13: Analysis of Renewable Electricity Integration on the U.S. Smart Grid 1038
1. Renewable Electricity Integration on the U.S. Smart Grid 1039
1.1 Introduction 1039
1.2 Technical Issues Facing the Industry 1041
1.3 Importance of Forecasting 1044
1.4 Working on the Accuracy of the System 1045
1.5 Integrating Weather Forecasts with Power Generation Forecasts 1048
2. Grid-level Energy Storage 1049
2.1 Introduction 1049
2.2 Developments in Recent Times 1049
2.3 Is it Feasible to Store Energy on a Grid Level? 1051
2.4 Determining the Scale of Grid Energy Storage 1054
2.5 Advanced Energy Storage Systems 1055
2.6 Popular Storage Methods 1055
2.7 Battery Energy Storage 1057
2.8 Battery Materials 1058
2.9 Outlook for Batteries 1060
2.10 Concept of Vehicle-to-Grid 1061
2.11 Economics of Grid Energy Storage 1062
2.12 Leveling the Load 1062
2.13 Managing the Energy Demand 1063
2.14 Portability Options 1064
2.15 Reliability of Energy Storage Options 1065
2.16 Storage Systems Used by Utilities 1065
2.17 Role of the Smart Grid 1068
3. Compressed Air Energy Storage 1070
3.1 Overview 1070
3.2 History of CAES 1071
3.3 Types of CAES 1072
3.4 Types of Systems 1073
3.4.1 Hybrid Systems 1073
3.4.2 Existing Hybrid Systems 1073
3.4.3 Future Hybrid Systems 1074
3.4.4 Lake or Ocean Storage 1074
3.5 CAES Systems in Energy Storage 1074
3.6 Comparing CAES with Batteries 1075
3.7 Safety Issues 1076
3.8 Key Players 1076
3.8.1 Energy Storage and Power LLC 1076
3.8.2 General Compression 1076
3.8.3 Haddington Ventures 1077
3.8.4 PB Energy Storage Services 1077
3.8.5 Ridge Energy Storage & Grid Services 1077
3.9 Installations 1078
4. Flywheels 1080
4.1 Overview 1080
4.2 History of Flywheels 1081
4.3 Flywheel Energy Storage 1081
4.4 Flywheels in Utility Energy Storage 1082
4.5 Key Players 1083
4.5.1 Active Power 1083
4.5.2 Beacon Power Corporation 1084
4.5.3 Pentadyne Power 1085
4.6 Installations 1086
5. Hydrogen 1087
5.1 Overview 1087
5.2 Hydrogen and Energy Storage 1087
5.3 Key Players 1088
5.3.1 Argonne National Laboratory 1088
5.3.2 Hydrogenics Corporation 1089
5.3.2 Massachusetts Institute of Technology 1090
5.4 Installations 1090
5.5 Outlook 1091
6. Pumped Hydroelectric Storage 1092
6.1 Overview 1092
6.2 Pumped Hydroelectric Storage & Energy Storage 1095
6.3 Potential Technologies 1095
6.4 Installations 1096
6.5 Outlook 1097
7. Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage 1098
7.1 Overview 1098
7.2 SMES & Energy Storage 1098
7.3 Advantages of SMES 1099
7.4 Current Uses 1099
7.5 Solenoid versus Toroid 1099
7.6 Low-Temperature versus High-Temperature Superconductors 1100
7.7 Economics of SMES 1101
7.8 Challenges Facing SMES 1102
7.9 Key Players 1103
7.9.1 American Superconductor Corporation 1103
7.9.2 Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute 1105
7.10 Installations 1105
7.11 Outlook 1106
8. Thermal Energy Storage 1107
8.1 Overview 1107
8.2 Economics of Thermal Energy Storage 1107
8.3 Key Players 1108
8.3.1 Calmac 1108
8.3.2 Ice Energy 1108
8.3.3 SkyFuel 1108
8.3.4 SolarReserve 1109
8.4 Installations 1109
8.5 Outlook 1110
9. Ultracapacitors 1111
9.1 Overview 1111
9.2 History of Ultracapacitors 1111
9.3 Ultracapacitors & Energy Storage 1112
9.4 Comparing Ultracapacitors to Batteries 1113
9.5 Key Players 1114
9.5.1 Maxwell Technologies 1115
10. Vehicle-to-Grid 1118
10.1 Overview 1118
10.2 Versions of V2G 1119
10.3 V2G & Energy Storage 1120
10.4 Key Players 1120
10.4.1 EEtrex 1120
10.4.2 V2Green Systems 1121
10.4.3 University of Delaware 1121
10.5 Installations 1122
10.6 Skepticism 1123
10.7 Outlook 1123
11. Technology Comparison 1125
11.1 Overview 1125
11.2 Performance Comparisons 1127
11.3 Ratings 1127
11.4 Size & Weight 1128
11.5 Capital Costs 1129
11.6 Efficiency and Cycle Life 1130
11.7 Per-Cycle Cost 1131
12. Applications and Benefits 1133
12.1 Overview 1133
12.2 Financial Benefits 1133
12.2.1 Arbitrage 1133
12.2.2 Reduced Cost for Transmission and Distribution Losses 1133
12.2.3 Reduced Financial Losses from Improved Electric Reliability 1134
12.2.4 Reduced Financial Losses from Improved Onsite Power Quality 1134
12.2.5 Reduced Need for Generation Capacity 1134
12.2.6 Renewables Value Enhancement 1134
12.3 Power Generation Support 1135
12.3.1 Enhanced Power Quality 1135
12.3.2 Frequency Regulation 1135
12.3.3 Load Following 1135
12.3.4 Renewables Support 1136
12.4 Transmission and Distribution Support 1136
12.4.1 Asset Utilization 1136
12.4.2 Avoided Congestion Charges 1136
12.4.3 Deferred Upgrade Investment 1136
12.4.4 Increased Load-Carrying Capacity 1137
12.4.5 Life Extension 1137
12.4.6 Substation Upgrade Deferral 1137
12.5 End-User Benefits 1138
12.5.1 Demand Charge Reduction 1138
12.5.2 Time-of-Use Energy Cost Reduction 1138
13. Risk Assessment 1139
13.1 Overview 1139
13.2 Installation Economics 1139
13.3 Monetizing Storage Benefits 1139
14. Long Distance Transmission of Renewable Energy 1140
14.1 Introduction 1140
14.2 Options for Long Distance Transmission 1141
14.3 Options for Direct Current Transmission 1142
14.4 Power Distribution for Urban Areas 1145
15. Challenges Facing the Industry 1147
16. Case Study: New York State 1148


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