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Opportunities in U.S. Clean Energy Markets - Volumes I and II
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Red Mountain Insights is proud to offer its two-volume research and analysis report aimed at companies seeking to create or leverage business opportunities in the United States Clean Technology Industry.

Purchase separately, or buy both volumes together and save.

VOLUME I:
Volume I provides an overview of the energy and renewable power landscape in the U.S. It includes an explanation of the Trends, Impacts, Industry Forces and Challenges in the U.S. Energy Industry.

It discusses how the government has responded to the energy crises through Policy Resolutions. It also provides SWAT, PEST and Michael Porter Analyses of the U.S. Energy industry, the U.S. renewables industry broken down into sector.

Next, it details regulatory policies relating to the clean technology industry, then provides an outlook of the Clean Tech industry based on current data and assumptions.
Section 2 of Volume One provides background, challenges, trends, project profiles, market incentives, investor recommendations, and state-by-state analysis of all clean tech markets including: wind, solar, fuel cells, biomass, ethanol, biomass, biodiesel, geothermal, hydroelectric, distributed generation, microgrids, demand-side management, cogeneration/CHP, waste-to-energy, waste management, and smart grid integration and technologies.

In this comprehensive 1,100 page volume you’ll develop a solid understanding of the United States’ Clean Technology section that will enable you to identify market opportunities.

This research is suited for investors, foreign companies seeking to understand and enter the U.S. Clean Tech industry, U.S. companies looking to expand into new markets, and investors looking for market opportunities to explore.

VOLUME II
Volume II is a comprehensive report detailing Federal and State investment incentives.
It includes a section on how to conduct business in the U.S. Clean Tech industry as a foreign firm, providing details on funding sources, how to identify U.S. investment partners, and tax incentives.

It provides profiles of companies operating in the U.S. clean tech industry, sector-by-sector.

Finally, it lists clean technology and renewable energy industry events, trade shows and conferences.

Professionals in the U.S. and global energy industry will find this research to be a valuable resource to explore profit, partnership and investment opportunities in United States Clean Technology industries.


Pages: 2150
Published: June 2013
Publisher: Red Mountain Insights
ISBN: 978-1-62484-041-8
Understanding Opportunities in U.S. Clean Technology Sectors

Volume I

Table of Contents

Section 1: Overview of the Energy and Renewable Energy Landscape in the United States 63
Executive Summary 65
1. Overview of the Renewable Energy Market in the United States 68
1.1 Introduction to the Industry 68
1.2 Requirement for Renewables in the U.S. 70
1.3 Market and Technology Trends 73
1.3.1 Falling Prices of Oil and Gas Lead to Decreased Demand for Renewable Energy 74
1.3.2 U.S. Electrical Grid Modernization – A Necessity for Renewable Energy Growth 75
1.3.3 Impact of the 2008 Financial Crisis on Renewables Sector 76
1.3.4 Legislative Support 76
1.3.5 Lower Prices for Carbon Emissions Trading across Europe 77
1.3.6 Institutional and Industry Support from President Obama 77
1.3.7 Investment from China 77
1.3.8 Pricing of Alternatives to Renewable Energy 78
1.3.9 GHG Emissions 78
1.4 Integration of Renewable Energy in the U.S. 78
2. Trends, Impacts, Industry Forces and Challenges in the U.S. Energy Industry 82
2.1 Impacts on the Industry 82
2.2 Issues Facing the Industry 83
2.3 Industry Trends 90
2.4 Growth Opportunities in the Industry 93
2.5 Competitive Forces Impacting the Industry 94
3. Policy Resolutions to the U.S. Energy Crisis 96
3.1 Supply-Side Resolutions 96
3.2 Demand-Side Resolutions 97
3.3 Resolving Cost Issues 97
3.4 Resolving Regulatory and Legal Issues 98
3.5 Boosting Industry Performance through Government Programs 99
3.6 Conclusion 99
4. SWOT Analysis – U.S. Energy Industry 101
4.1 Strengths 101
4.2 Weaknesses 102
4.3 Opportunities 103
4.4 Threats 104
5. SWOT Analysis – U.S. Renewable Energy Industry 108
5.1 Strengths 108
5.2 Weaknesses 109
5.3 Opportunities 110
5.4 Threats 111
6. SWOT Analysis of Top 5 Renewable Technologies 113
6.1 Wind Power 113
6.2 Solar 114
6.3 Geothermal 114
6.4 Biomass 115
6.5 Small Hydro 116
6.6 In-depth Analysis derived from SWOT 116
7. PEST Analysis – U.S. Energy Industry 120
7.1 Political Features 120
7.2 Economic Features 126
7.3 Social Features 127
7.4 Technological Features 128
8. Michael Porter’s Five Forces Analysis – U.S. Energy Industry 130
8.1 Bargaining Power of Buyers 130
8.2 Bargaining Power of Suppliers 131
8.3 Competitive Rivalry in the Industry 133
8.4 Threat of New Entrants 134
8.5 Threat of Substitutes 135
8.6 Conclusion 135
9. Renewable Energy Policy in the United States 136
9.1 Introduction 136
9.2 History of U.S.’ Energy Policy 137
9.3 Looking at U.S. Energy Independence 138
9.3.1 Dealing with Terrorism, Embargo and Other Factors 139
9.3.2 Tactics Being Applied 140
9.3.3 Drawbacks and Criticisms 141
9.4 U.S. Relations with Oil-Producing Countries 141
9.5 U.S. Budget & the Energy Sector 142
10. U.S. States Production of Electricity from Renewable Energy 144
11. Regulatory Policies Impacting the Clean Technology Sector 148
11.1 California Solar Initiative 148
11.2 EPA Initiatives 150
11.3 Green Power Partnership 151
11.4 Renewable Portfolio Standards 152
11.5 Solar America Initiative 164
11.6 Feed-in-Tariffs 165
11.7 New Energy Frontier 173
11.8 Minerals Management Service’s Program 176
11.9 U.S. Geological Survey’s Program 177
11.10 Fish and Wildlife Service’s Program 177
11.11 DOE Wind Program 178
11.12 DOE Geothermal Technologies Program 186
11.13 Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 186
11.14 Clean Air Act 187
11.15 Energy Policy Act of 1992 187
11.16 Energy Policy Act of 2005 188
11.17 Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 194
11.18 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 194
11.19 Fuel Cell Initiatives by the U.S. DOE 201
12. Outlook for U.S. Clean Technology Market 203
12.1 Government and Institutional Outlook 203
12.2 Outlook by Industry Trade Associations 204
12.3 Investing Potential of the Industry 206
12.4 Outlook for Technological Innovation 210
12.5 Long-Term Energy Projections 212
12.6 Achieving a Sustainable Electric Generation Portfolio through Renewables 215
12.7 Wind Power Market Outlook 217
12.8 Solar Power Market Outlook 222
12.9 Hydropower Market Outlook 224
12.10 Geothermal Energy Market Outlook 227
12.11 Biomass Market Outlook 229
12.12 Biodiesel Market Outlook 231
12.13 Future of the Ethanol Industry 232
12.14 Future of the U.S. Energy Industry 233
12.15 Future Prospects for Renewable Energy 235
12.16 U.S.’ 25x’25 Vision 238
Section 2: Analysis of Wind Power in the U.S. 241
1. Wind Power Sector in the United States 242
1.1 Market Profile 242
1.2 Wind Power Generation in the U.S. 245
1.3 Installed Capacity Growth 247
1.4 Wind Resources 250
1.5 Wind Power Transmission and Integration 253
1.6 Wind Energy in the Electrical Energy Mix 255
1.7 New Wind Installations 256
1.8 Wind vs. Traditional Electricity Generation 257
1.9 Wind Turbine Manufacturing in the U.S. 257
1.10 Role of the Federal Production Tax Credit 259
1.11 Offshore Wind Power in the U.S. 259
1.12 Role of Wind in the Energy Market 260
1.13 Economics of Wind Energy in the U.S. 262
1.14 Financing Alternatives for Wind Power 264
2. Trends in the Wind Power Market 270
2.1 Growing Demand for Energy 270
2.2 Increasing Cost Competitiveness 271
2.3 Global Climate Change 272
2.4 Renewable Quota System 273
2.5 Trends in Offshore Development 273
2.6 Merchant Projects 274
2.7 “Inside the Fence” Projects 275
2.8 Small Wind Turbines 275
2.8.1 Applications of SWTs 279
2.8.2 Market for SWTs 282
2.8.3 Hybrid Small Wind Turbines 282
2.8.4 Very Small Wind Turbines 282
2.8.5 Wind-Diesel Hybrid Turbine Systems 283
2.8.6 Cost of Small Wind Turbines 284
2.8.7 Factors Impacting the U.S. Market 284
2.8.8 Government Incentives 295
2.8.9 SWT Market Trends 296
3. Challenges Facing the Wind Power Industry in the U.S. 298
3.1 Permitting Difficulty 298
3.2 Transmission Limitations 298
3.3 Risk Aversion 298
4. Grid Impact and Integration of Micro Wind Generation in the U.S. 300
4.1 Introduction 300
4.2 Case Study: University of Salerno Campus 301
4.3 Measurement, Communication and Monitoring System 302
4.4.1 Technical Details 306
4.5 Conclusion 310
5. Analysis of Wind Power by State 311
5.1 Arizona 311
5.2 California 311
5.3 Colorado 313
5.4 Illinois 315
5.5 Indiana 316
5.6 Iowa 317
5.7 Kansas 321
5.8 Maine 322
5.9 Massachusetts 323
5.10 Minnesota 323
5.11 Montana 324
5.12 New Hampshire 325
5.13 New York 326
5.14 Ohio 327
5.15 Oregon 328
5.16 Pennsylvania 331
5.17 Texas 333
5.18 Vermont 337
5.19 Washington 338
5.20 Wyoming 340
6. Profiles of Wind Farms in the U.S. 342
6.1 Altamont Pass Wind Farm 342
6.2 Alta Wind Energy Center 342
6.3 Benton County Wind Farm 343
6.4 Biglow Canyon Wind Farm 343
6.5 Big Horn Wind Farm 345
6.6 Blue Canyon Wind Farm 345
6.7 Blue Sky Green Field Wind Farm 346
6.8 Brazos Wind Ranch 347
6.9 Buffalo Gap Wind Farm 348
6.10 Buffalo Ridge Wind Farm 349
6.11 Capricorn Ridge Wind Farm 350
6.12 Cedar Creek Wind Farm 350
6.13 Desert Sky Wind Farm 350
6.14 Dutch Hill/Cohocton Wind Farm 351
6.15 Enbridge Ontario Wind Farm 352
6.16 Fenton Wind Farm 352
6.17 Forward Wind Energy Center 353
6.18 Fowler Ridge Wind Farm 353
6.19 Glacier Wind Farm 354
6.20 Green Mt. Energy Wind Farm 354
6.21 Gulf Wind Farm 355
6.22 Hackberry Wind Project 355
6.23 Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center 355
6.24 Intrepid Wind Farm 356
6.25 Judith Gap Wind Farm 356
6.26 Kibby Wind Power Project 357
6.27 King Mountain Wind Farm 358
6.28 Klondike Wind Farm 359
6.29 Lone Star Wind Farm 359
6.27 Locust Ridge Wind Farm 359
6.30 Maple Ridge Wind Farms I and II 360
6.31 Marengo Wind Farm 360
6.32 Meadow Lake Wind Farm 360
6.33 Milford Wind Corridor Project 361
6.34 Mount Storm Wind Farm 361
6.35 New Mexico Wind Energy Center 362
6.36 Panther Creek Wind Farm 362
6.37 Peetz Wind Farm 363
6.38 Peñascal Wind Farm 363
6.39 Pioneer Prairie Wind Farm 363
6.40 Roscoe Wind Farm 363
6.41 San Gorgonio Pass Wind Farm 364
6.42 Sherbino Wind Farm 364
6.43 Shiloh Wind Farm 365
6.44 Smoky Hills Wind Farm 365
6.45 Stateline Wind Project 366
6.46 Story County Wind Farm 366
6.47 Streator Cayuga Ridge South Wind Farm 367
6.48 Sweetwater Wind Farm 367
6.49 Tatanka Wind Farm 367
6.50 Tehachapi Pass Wind Farm 367
6.51 Trent Wind Farm 368
6.52 Twin Groves Wind Farms I and II 368
6.53 Walnut Wind Farm 369
6.54 Wethersfield Wind Park 369
6.55 Whispering Willow Wind Farm 369
6.56 Windy Point/Windy Flats 370
6.57 White Creek Wind Power Project 370
6.58 Wild Horse Wind Farm 371
6.59 Wildorado Wind Ranch 372
7. Analysis of the Liberty Wind Turbine 373
8. Industry Outlook 375
Section 3: Analysis of Solar Power in the U.S. 381
1. Solar Power Sector in the United States 382
1.1 Market Profile 382
1.2 Solar Resource 383
1.3 Industry Growth 384
1.4 Solar Thermal Plants in the U.S. 386
1.5 Solar Photovoltaics in the U.S. 389
1.6 Industry and Growth 393
2. Solar Power and the Consumer Energy Market 398
3. Emerging Solar Power Technologies 400
3.1 Plasmonic Solar Cells 406
3.1.1 Applications of Plasmonic Solar Cells 406
3.1.2 Recent Developments in Plasmonic Solar Cells 407
3.2 Photoelectrochemical Cells 410
3.2.1 Types of Photoelectrochemical Cell 410
3.3 String Ribbon Solar Cells 411
3.3.1 Reducing the Cost of Solar Cells with String Ribbon 412
3.3.2 Technology Behind String Ribbon Solar Cells 413
3.4 Hybrid Solar Cells 415
3.4.1 Types of Hybrid Solar Cells 416
3.4.2 Case Study: Improving the Efficiency of Hybrid Solar Cells 417
3.5 Polymer Solar Cells 418
3.5.1 Physical Properties of Polymer Solar Cells 419
3.5.2 Architecture of a Polymer Solar Cell 420
3.5.3 Market for Polymer Solar Cells 421
3.5.4 Conclusion 421
3.6 Carbon Nanotubes 421
3.6.1 Different Types of Carbon Nanotubes 422
3.6.2 Applications of Carbon Nanotubes 423
3.7 Carbon Nanotubes and Photovoltaics 423
3.7.1 Usage of Carbon Nanotubes as Transparent Electrode 423
3.7.2 Usage of Carbon Nanotubes in DSSCs 424
3.8 Nanopillars 425
3.8.1 Relation between Nanopillars and Better Solar Cells 425
3.8.2 Three-Dimensional Nanopillar-Array PV 427
3.9 Thin Film Solar Cells 428
3.9.1 Types of Thin Film Solar Cells 428
3.9.2 Copper Indium Gallium Selenide 432
3.9.3 Dye-sensitized Solar Cell 432
3.9.4 Organic Solar Cell 433
3.9.5 Thin-film Silicon 433
3.9.6 Efficiency Factor and Price of Thin Film Solar Cells 433
3.9.7 Dye-Sensitized Thin Film Solar Cells 436
3.9.8 Nanotechnology and Thin Film Solar Cells 436
3.10 Quantum Dot Solar Cells 438
3.10.1 Applications of Quantum Dots 439
3.10.2 Quantum Wells and Superlattices 442
3.10.3 Case Study: NASA’s Research into Quantum Dots for Solar Cells 443
3.10.4 Case Study: Creation of ‘Rainbow’ Solar Cells 444
3.10.5 Conclusion 445
3.11 Miniature Solar Cells 446
3.11.1 Miniature Silicon Solar Cells to Increase the Efficiency of Tandem Cells 446
3.11.2 Case Study: Radio Sensor Powered by a Miniature Solar Cell 447
3.11.3 Case Study: Miniature Solar Cell Powered Devices for the Army 447
3.12 Organic Photovoltaics 448
3.13 Nanowire Solar Cells 450
3.14 Quantum Well Solar Cells 452
3.14.1 Quantum Well Concentrator Solar Cells by QuantaSol 453
3.15 Flexible Solar Cells 454
3.16 Nanostructured Coating 455
3.17 Nanoplasmonic Solar Cells 455
3.18 Holographic Solar Concentrator Technology 456
3.19 Silicon Foil Technology 458
4. Incentives for Solar Power 459
4.1 Overview 459
4.2 Federal Tax Credits 460
4.3 Solar America Initiative 461
4.4 SunShot Initiative 462
4.5 Incentives on the State-level 463
4.6 Feed-in Tariff 465
4.7 Solar Renewable Energy Certificates 465
4.8 Power Purchase Agreement 465
5. What Investors Should Know About Solar 467
6. Analysis of Solar Power by State 469
6.1 Arizona 469
6.2 California 471
6.3 Hawaii 475
6.4 Nevada 478
6.5 New Jersey 479
6.6 New Mexico 482
6.7 Oregon 484
7. Programs Promoting Solar Power in the U.S. 487
7.1 U.S. DOE SunShot Initiative 487
7.2 U.S. DOE Solar Decathlon 490
7.3 Open PV Mapping Project 492
7.4 205 Kilowatt (kW) Installation 492
7.5 Utility Solar Water Heating Initiative 494
8. Profiles of Solar Thermal Power Plants in the U.S. 495
8.1 Blythe Solar Power Project 495
8.2 Calico Solar Energy Project 496
8.3 Fort Irwin 497
8.4 Ivanpah Solar Power Facility 498
8.5 Keahole Solar Power 500
8.6 Kimberlina Solar Thermal Energy Plant 500
8.7 Martin Next Generation Solar Energy Center 501
8.8 Mojave Solar Park 502
8.9 Nevada Solar One 504
8.10 Saguaro Solar Power Station 505
8.11 Sierra SunTower 506
8.12 Solana Generating Station 509
8.13 Solar Energy Generating Systems 511
8.14 The Solar Project 513
8.15 Solnova Solar Power Station 515
8.16 Extresol Solar Power Station 516
8.17 Valle Solar Power Station 516
9. Industry Outlook 518
Section 4: Analysis of Fuel Cells in the U.S. 522
1. Fuel Cells Sector in the United States 523
1.1 History of Fuel Cells 523
1.2 Designing Fuel Cells 524
1.3 Technology behind Fuel Cells 525
2. Types of Fuel Cells 530
2.1 Alkaline Fuel Cell 530
2.2 Direct Borohydride Fuel Cell 532
2.3 Direct Ethanol Fuel Cell 532
2.4 Direct Methanol Fuel Cell 534
2.5 Electro-galvanic Fuel Cell 535
2.6 Flow Battery 535
2.7 Formic Acid Fuel Cell 536
2.8 Fuel Cells Minus Membranes 537
2.9 Metal Air Fuel Cells 538
2.10 Metal Hydride Fuel Cell 538
2.11 Microbial Fuel Cell 539
2.12 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell 542
2.13 Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell 544
2.14 Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells 545
2.15 Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell 546
2.16 Protonic Ceramic Fuel Cell 547
2.17 Regenerative Fuel Cells 547
2.18 Reversible Fuel Cell 548
2.19 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell 549
2.20 Zinc-Air Fuel Cells 551
3. Challenges Facing the U.S. Fuel Cells Industry 553
3.1 Design Issues 553
3.2 Cost Issues 554
3.3 Reliability and Durability Issues 555
3.4 Storage Issues 555
3.5 Size and Weight Issues 556
3.6 Fuel Flexibility 556
3.7 Low Operating Temperatures 557
3.8 Public Support 557
4. R&D and Investing 558
4.1 Fuel Cells VC and Public Market Investment 560
4.2 Fuel Cell Stocks Performance 565
6. Initiatives for Fuel Cells by State 567
5.1 Alaska 567
5.2 Arizona 568
5.3 Arkansas 571
5.4 California 572
5.5 Colorado 583
5.6 Connecticut 586
5.7 Delaware 591
5.8 District of Columbia 594
5.9 Florida 594
5.10 Georgia 597
5.11 Hawaii 598
5.12 Idaho 604
5.13 Illinois 605
5.14 Indiana 608
5.15 Iowa 610
5.16 Louisiana 611
5.17 Maine 611
5.18 Maryland 612
5.19 Massachusetts 613
5.20 Michigan 617
5.21 Minnesota 620
5.22 Mississippi 622
5.23 Missouri 623
5.24 Montana 624
5.25 Nebraska 627
5.26 Nevada 627
5.27 New Jersey 628
5.28 New Mexico 631
5.29 New York 636
5.30 North Carolina 639
5.31 North Dakota 641
5.32 Ohio 641
5.33 Oklahoma 644
5.34 Oregon 644
5.35 Pennsylvania 646
5.36 Rhode Island 649
5.37 South Carolina 650
5.38 South Dakota 651
5.39 Tennessee 651
6.40 Texas 652
5.41 Utah 653
5.42 Virginia 654
5.43 Washington 655
5.44 West Virginia 657
5.45 Wisconsin 658
5.46 Wyoming 659
6. Industry Outlook 661
6.1 Role of Fuel Cells in Future Cars 662
Section 5: Analysis of Biofuels in the U.S. 665
1. Biofuels Sector in the United States 666
1.1 Market Profile 666
1.2 Industry Production and Capacity Utilization 667
1.3 Industry Structure and Concentration 674
1.4 Opportunities and Issues in the Biofuel Sector 677
1.5 Government Funding Opportunities 679
2. Ethanol Market 680
2.1 Tax Incentives for Ethanol 680
2.2 Corn – The Largest Feedstock in U.S. Ethanol Production 682
2.3 Regulatory Policies Promoting Ethanol Production and Use 684
2.3.1 Renewable Fuel Standard 684
2.3.2 State Waivers 688
2.3.3 Ethanol Provisions 689
2.3.4 MTBE 689
2.3.5 Renewable Energy 689
2.3.6 Biomass Funding 689
2.4 Markets for Ethanol By-Products 690
2.5 Market Outlook 694
3. Biodiesel Market 696
4. Market for Methanol Fuel 700
5. Market for Butanol 701
6. Subsidies for Ethanol and Biodiesel 702
6.1 Development of Federal Regulations 702
6.2 Historical Perspective 707
6.3 Present-Day Subsidies 711
6.3.1 Support Based on Market Output 711
6.3.2 Subsidies Based on Production Factors 714
6.3.3 Regulations Impacting Price of Intermediate Inputs 716
6.3.4 Subsidies Based on Consumption 717
6.4 Conclusion 718
7. Industry Outlook 719
Section 6: Analysis of Biomass Power in the U.S. 720
1. Biomass Sector in the United States 721
1.1 What is Biomass? 721
1.2 Technical Aspects of Biomass 722
1.3 Combustion Theory 722
1.4 Technologies Involved 724
1.5 Production of Charcoal 725
1.6 Briquetting 725
1.7 Animal Waste 725
1.8 Commercial Utilization of Biomass 726
2. Issues and Challenges Facing the Industry in the U.S. 727
2.1 Biomass Energy and the Environment 727
2.2 Women, Woodfuel, Work and Welfare 727
2.3. Biomass Energy: Cost and Scale Issues 729
4. Industry Outlook 730
Section 7: Analysis of Geothermal Power in the U.S. 733
1. Geothermal Energy Sector in the United States 734
1.1 Market Profile 734
1.2 Geothermal Plants in the U.S. 734
1.3 Geothermal Capacity 740
1.4 Capacity Factor of Geothermal Energy 741
1.5 Environmental Impact 741
2. Policy Drivers for Geothermal Energy 742
2.1 State/Federal Renewable Standards 742
2.2 Federal Tax Incentives 743
2.3 Federal Permitting 743
3. Industry Outlook 745
Section 8: Analysis of Hydropower in the U.S. 747
1. Hydroelectric Power Sector in the United States 748
1.1 Market Profile 748
1.2 How Hydroelectric Power Plants Work in the U.S. 750
1.3 Head and Flow Concept 753
1.4 Energy Storage 753
1.5 Pumped Storage Systems 754
1.6 Hydropower Production in the U.S. 754
1.7 Hydropower for Baseload Power in the U.S. 755
1.8 Economics of Hydropower in the U.S. 756
1.9 Hydropower and the Environment 757
2. Other Hydro Resources in the U.S. 759
2.1 Tidal Energy 759
2.2 Wave Energy 760
2.3 Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion 760
2.4 Small Hydro 761
3. Hydroelectric Power Stations in the U.S. 762
3.1 Bath County PSP 762
3.2 Chief Joseph Dam 763
3.3 Grand Coulee 764
3.4 Hoover Dam 768
3.5 John Day Dam 770
3.6 Robert Moses Niagara Power Plant 771
3.7 The Dalles Dam 774
4. Industry Outlook 776
Section 9: Analysis of Distributed Generation Technologies and Microgrids in the U.S. 777
1. What is Distributed Generation? 778
1.1 Overview 778
1.2 Economies of Scale 778
1.3 Localized Generation 778
1.4 Distributed Energy Resources 779
1.5 Cost Economics 780
1.6 Welcome to the Microgrid 780
1.7 Types of Power Generation 781
1.7.1 Combined Heat Power (CHP) 781
1.7.2 Fuel Cells 785
1.7.3 Micro Combined Heat and Power (MicroCHP) 785
1.7.4 Microturbines 788
1.7.5 Photovoltaic Systems 790
1.7.6 Reciprocating Engines 790
1.7.7 Small Wind Power Systems 791
1.7.8 Stirling Engines 792
1.8 Distributed Generation and Renewable Energy Sources in the U.S. 799
1.9 Economic Dispatch 801
1.10 Legal Requirements in the U.S. for Distributed Generation 803
2. Microgrids in the U.S. 804
2.1 Introduction 804
2.2 Impacts of Microgrids on Service Quality 805
2.3 Impacts of Microgrids on Expansion Planning 805
2.4 Microgrids Operation 806
2.4.1 Microgrids Control Levels 806
2.4.2 Islanded vs. Interconnected Mode of Operation 808
2.4.3 Management of Voltage and Frequency 808
2.4.4 Role of IT 809
3. Microgrid Designs in the U.S. 810
3.1 Standardization of Technical and Commercial Protocols and Hardware 810
3.2 Safety and Protection 810
3.3 Modeling and Simulation of Microgrids 810
4. Microgrid Ownership Models in the U.S. 812
5. Analysis of a Microgrid with Photovoltaics, Fuel Cells, and Energy Efficiency 814
5.1 Introduction 814
5.2 System Description 814
5.3 Economics of the System 816
5.4 Annual, Monthly, and Hourly Match Between Supply and Demand 818
5.5 Reliability of the System 821
5.6 Conclusion 824
6. Using Distributed Energy Technologies for E-Related Applications 825
6.1 Introduction 825
6.2 History of Distributed Energy Generation Technologies 825
6.3 Application for the Microgrid 826
6.4 Application for Premium Power Services 826
6.5 Application for Microturbine Generators 827
7. How Micro-Systems are Driving Smart Metering in Smart Grids 828
7.1 Introduction 828
7.2 Emergence of a Smart Microgrid 831
7.3 Using the Technologies for Metering and Monitoring 837
7.4 Visualization of Metering Data 839
7.5 Energy Control 842
7.6 Challenges for Future Smart Grid Technologies 843
8. Emergence of Integrated Demand Side Management, Distributed Generation, Renewable Energy Sources, and Energy Storage 846
8.1 Introduction 846
8.2 Integrating with Smart Meter Deployment 854
8.3 Interoperability 856
8.4 Automation of Distributed Energy Resources 856
8.5 Primary Process Feedback 857
8.6 Intelligent Agents and Distributed Controllers 858
8.7 DER/EMS Management System 859
8.8 Understanding Relative Costs and Benefits of Distributed Energy Businesses 860
8.9 Incentives and Subsidies 862
8.10 DER Business Opportunities for Italian Companies in the U.S. 865
8.10.1 Market-based DER 865
8.10.2 Business Models Examples 866
9. Role of the Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory in the Industry 868
10. Industry Outlook 870
Section 10: Analysis of Combined Heat and Power/Cogeneration in the U.S. 871
1. CHP/Cogeneration Sector in the United States 872
1.1 What is CHP? 872
1.2 History of CHP in the U.S. 874
1.3 Types of Cogeneration Plants in Use in the U.S. 876
1.3.1 Micro CHP 877
1.3.2 Mini CHP 877
1.4 CHP Technologies in the U.S. 877
1.5 Applications of CHP 878
1.6 What Does a CHP System Produce? 878
2. Analysis of CHP Systems in Use in the U.S. 880
2.1 Overview 880
2.2 Steam Turbines 882
2.3 Reciprocating Engines 882
2.4 Gas Turbines 882
2.5 Microturbines 883
2.6 Fuel Cells 883
3. CHP Market in the U.S. 884
3.1 Market Overview 884
3.2 Regulatory and Market Challenges Facing CHP 884
3.3 CHP and District Energy 885
3.4 CHP and District Heating 886
4. Energy Situation in the U.S. and Role of CHP 888
4.1 Overview 888
4.2 Rising Energy Demand 890
4.3 Restraints on Existing Energy Sources 890
4.4 Competition in the Global Energy Markets 891
4.5 Dealing with Climate Change 891
4.6 Requirement for Modern Infrastructure 892
4.7 Energy Efficiency and CHP 892
5. Mini and Micro-Gas Turbines for CHP 893
5.1 Introduction 893
5.2 Pros and Cons of Micro-Turbines and CHP 894
5.3 Market for Micro-Turbines in the U.S. 895
5.4 Elements of a Micro-Turbine Generator 896
5.5 Current and Future Status of the Technology 900
5.6 Conclusion 901
6. Market Mechanism for Energy Allocation in Micro-CHP Grids in the U.S. 902
6.1 Introduction 902
6.2 Application for a Market-based Micro CHP Grid 903
6.3 Market Outlook 907
7. CHP and Emissions Trading in the U.S. 908
7.1 Emissions Trading in the U.S. 908
7.2 Role of CHP in Emissions Trading 909
7.3 Challenges Facing CHP in its Role in Emissions Trading 909
7.3.1 Increase in Onsite Emissions and Decrease in Global Emissions 909
7.3.2 Distinguishing between Different Economic Sectors 910
7.3.3 Boundaries for Inclusion of CHP in an ETS 910
8. Why CHP is the Competitive Solution for the U.S. 911
8.1 Overview 911
8.2 Economic Benefits for the U.S. 911
8.3 Dealing with Local Energy Issues with CHP 912
8.3.1 Overview 912
8.3.2 Potential CHP Capacity 912
8.3.3 Increasing Role of CHP in Generation 914
8.4 Transition to Modernized Infrastructure 914
8.4.1 Overview 914
8.4.2 Location of Energy Resources near Demand 914
8.4.3 Utilities and Grid Benefits 915
8.4.4 Increasing the Efficiency of the Power Grid 915
8.5 Challenges Facing CHP Adoption in the U.S. 916
8.5.1 Regulation of Fees and Tariffs 916
8.5.2 Issues dealing with Grid Integration 917
8.5.3 Environmental Regulations 917
8.5.4 Taxation Issues 918
8.5.5 Technical Challenges 918
8.6 Requirement for Further R&D 919
9. Regulations Aiding the Growth of CHP 920
9.1 Interconnection 920
9.2 Greenhouse Gas Policy Mechanisms 920
9.3 Investment Tax Credits 921
9.4 Proper Emissions Treatment of CHP 921
9.5 Renewable Portfolio Standards 922
10. CHP Regulation in the U.S. 923
10.1 Regulations and CHP 923
10.2 Energy Inputs in CHP 924
10.3 Energy Outputs in CHP 925
10.4 Role of Regulation in CHP 926
10.5 Looking at the Traditional Regulatory Framework 927
10.6 Looking at the Emerging Regulatory Framework 928
10.6.1 Broadening Wholesale Competition: The 1992 Energy Policy Act and IPPs 929
10.6.2 Moving Toward Retail Competition: State Electricity Restructuring Initiatives 930
10.7 Restructuring of Electricity in the U.S. 932
10.8 Restructuring Challenges in CHP 932
11. CHP and Energy Portfolio Standards 942
11.1 What are Energy Portfolio Standards? 942
11.2 Role of RPS 943
11.3 RPS States that Include CHP & States with CHP Experience 944
11.3.1 California 944
11.3.2 Connecticut 946
11.3.3 Hawaii 948
11.3.4 Maine 949
11.3.5 Minnesota 951
11.3.6 Nevada 953
11.3.7 New York 955
11.3.8 Pennsylvania 958
11.3.9 Washington 961
12. DOE’s Distribution and Interconnection Research and Development Activities 963
12.1 Renewable System Interconnection Study 963
13. Industry Outlook 965
Section 11: Analysis of Waste-to-Energy in the U.S. 967
1. Waste-to-Energy Sector in the United States 968
1.1 Introduction 968
1.2 Incineration – Common WtE Implementation 968
1.3 Other WtE Technologies 969
1.3.1 Thermal Technologies 969
1.3.2 Non-thermal Technologies 982
1.3.3 Chemical Technologies 986
1.4 Typical Waste-to-Energy Power Plant 987
1.5 Issue of CO2 Emissions 989
1.6 Environmental Regulations in the U.S. 991
2. Waste-to-Energy Market Overview in the U.S. 993
3. Technological Developments 995
3.1 EnerTech – SlurryCarb™ Process 995
3.2 EcoEnergy Oy – Wabio Process 995
3.3 Centre Nationale de Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) – Valgora Process 995
3.4 Convertech Group – Convertech Process 996
3.5 Martin GmbH – SynCom Process 996
4. Industry Trends 997
5. Debate over Waste-to-Energy in the U.S. – Is Waste-to-Energy a Source of Renewable Energy? 998
6. Harnessing Waste with Low-Btu Reciprocating Gas Engine Generators 1002
6.1 Introduction 1002
6.2 Harnessing the Potential of Methane 1002
6.3 Role of Reciprocating Engine Generators 1003
6.4 Question of Site Suitability 1004
6.5 Impact of Contaminants 1005
6.6 Conclusion 1007
7. Case Studies 1008
7.1 Montgomery County Resource Recovery Facility 1008
7.2 Waste-to-Energy Solution at U.S. Virgin Islands 1008
7.3 Waste-to-Energy System in Baltimore, Maryland 1010
7.4 Waste-to-Energy Plant in Pinellas County, Florida 1010
8. Waste-to-Energy Industry Outlook 1012
Section 12: Analysis of Waste Management in the U.S. 1015
1. Waste Management Sector in the U.S. 1016
1.1 What is Waste Management? 1016
1.2 Waste Disposal Methods 1016
1.2.1 Integrated Waste Management 1016
1.2.2 Landfill 1016
1.2.3 Incineration 1017
1.2.4 Recycling 1018
1.2.5 Biological Reprocessing 1018
1.2.6 Energy Recovery 1019
1.2.7 Waste Avoidance 1019
1.3 Technologies Involved in the Industry 1021
2. Waste Management Concepts 1022
2.1 Waste Hierarchy 1022
2.2 Extended Producer Responsibility 1024
2.3 Polluter Pays Principle 1029
3. Solid Waste Management in the U.S. 1030
3.1 Introduction 1030
3.2 Infrastructure for Solid Waste Infrastructure 1030
3.3 Waste Generation and Composition 1030
3.4 Waste Management Techniques 1031
3.5 Conclusion 1036
Section 13: Analysis of Renewable Electricity Integration on the U.S. Smart Grid 1038
1. Renewable Electricity Integration on the U.S. Smart Grid 1039
1.1 Introduction 1039
1.2 Technical Issues Facing the Industry 1041
1.3 Importance of Forecasting 1044
1.4 Working on the Accuracy of the System 1045
1.5 Integrating Weather Forecasts with Power Generation Forecasts 1048
2. Grid-level Energy Storage 1049
2.1 Introduction 1049
2.2 Developments in Recent Times 1049
2.3 Is it Feasible to Store Energy on a Grid Level? 1051
2.4 Determining the Scale of Grid Energy Storage 1054
2.5 Advanced Energy Storage Systems 1055
2.6 Popular Storage Methods 1055
2.7 Battery Energy Storage 1057
2.8 Battery Materials 1058
2.9 Outlook for Batteries 1060
2.10 Concept of Vehicle-to-Grid 1061
2.11 Economics of Grid Energy Storage 1062
2.12 Leveling the Load 1062
2.13 Managing the Energy Demand 1063
2.14 Portability Options 1064
2.15 Reliability of Energy Storage Options 1065
2.16 Storage Systems Used by Utilities 1065
2.17 Role of the Smart Grid 1068
3. Compressed Air Energy Storage 1070
3.1 Overview 1070
3.2 History of CAES 1071
3.3 Types of CAES 1072
3.4 Types of Systems 1073
3.4.1 Hybrid Systems 1073
3.4.2 Existing Hybrid Systems 1073
3.4.3 Future Hybrid Systems 1074
3.4.4 Lake or Ocean Storage 1074
3.5 CAES Systems in Energy Storage 1074
3.6 Comparing CAES with Batteries 1075
3.7 Safety Issues 1076
3.8 Key Players 1076
3.8.1 Energy Storage and Power LLC 1076
3.8.2 General Compression 1076
3.8.3 Haddington Ventures 1077
3.8.4 PB Energy Storage Services 1077
3.8.5 Ridge Energy Storage & Grid Services 1077
3.9 Installations 1078
4. Flywheels 1080
4.1 Overview 1080
4.2 History of Flywheels 1081
4.3 Flywheel Energy Storage 1081
4.4 Flywheels in Utility Energy Storage 1082
4.5 Key Players 1083
4.5.1 Active Power 1083
4.5.2 Beacon Power Corporation 1084
4.5.3 Pentadyne Power 1085
4.6 Installations 1086
5. Hydrogen 1087
5.1 Overview 1087
5.2 Hydrogen and Energy Storage 1087
5.3 Key Players 1088
5.3.1 Argonne National Laboratory 1088
5.3.2 Hydrogenics Corporation 1089
5.3.2 Massachusetts Institute of Technology 1090
5.4 Installations 1090
5.5 Outlook 1091
6. Pumped Hydroelectric Storage 1092
6.1 Overview 1092
6.2 Pumped Hydroelectric Storage & Energy Storage 1095
6.3 Potential Technologies 1095
6.4 Installations 1096
6.5 Outlook 1097
7. Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage 1098
7.1 Overview 1098
7.2 SMES & Energy Storage 1098
7.3 Advantages of SMES 1099
7.4 Current Uses 1099
7.5 Solenoid versus Toroid 1099
7.6 Low-Temperature versus High-Temperature Superconductors 1100
7.7 Economics of SMES 1101
7.8 Challenges Facing SMES 1102
7.9 Key Players 1103
7.9.1 American Superconductor Corporation 1103
7.9.2 Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute 1105
7.10 Installations 1105
7.11 Outlook 1106
8. Thermal Energy Storage 1107
8.1 Overview 1107
8.2 Economics of Thermal Energy Storage 1107
8.3 Key Players 1108
8.3.1 Calmac 1108
8.3.2 Ice Energy 1108
8.3.3 SkyFuel 1108
8.3.4 SolarReserve 1109
8.4 Installations 1109
8.5 Outlook 1110
9. Ultracapacitors 1111
9.1 Overview 1111
9.2 History of Ultracapacitors 1111
9.3 Ultracapacitors & Energy Storage 1112
9.4 Comparing Ultracapacitors to Batteries 1113
9.5 Key Players 1114
9.5.1 Maxwell Technologies 1115
10. Vehicle-to-Grid 1118
10.1 Overview 1118
10.2 Versions of V2G 1119
10.3 V2G & Energy Storage 1120
10.4 Key Players 1120
10.4.1 EEtrex 1120
10.4.2 V2Green Systems 1121
10.4.3 University of Delaware 1121
10.5 Installations 1122
10.6 Skepticism 1123
10.7 Outlook 1123
11. Technology Comparison 1125
11.1 Overview 1125
11.2 Performance Comparisons 1127
11.3 Ratings 1127
11.4 Size & Weight 1128
11.5 Capital Costs 1129
11.6 Efficiency and Cycle Life 1130
11.7 Per-Cycle Cost 1131
12. Applications and Benefits 1133
12.1 Overview 1133
12.2 Financial Benefits 1133
12.2.1 Arbitrage 1133
12.2.2 Reduced Cost for Transmission and Distribution Losses 1133
12.2.3 Reduced Financial Losses from Improved Electric Reliability 1134
12.2.4 Reduced Financial Losses from Improved Onsite Power Quality 1134
12.2.5 Reduced Need for Generation Capacity 1134
12.2.6 Renewables Value Enhancement 1134
12.3 Power Generation Support 1135
12.3.1 Enhanced Power Quality 1135
12.3.2 Frequency Regulation 1135
12.3.3 Load Following 1135
12.3.4 Renewables Support 1136
12.4 Transmission and Distribution Support 1136
12.4.1 Asset Utilization 1136
12.4.2 Avoided Congestion Charges 1136
12.4.3 Deferred Upgrade Investment 1136
12.4.4 Increased Load-Carrying Capacity 1137
12.4.5 Life Extension 1137
12.4.6 Substation Upgrade Deferral 1137
12.5 End-User Benefits 1138
12.5.1 Demand Charge Reduction 1138
12.5.2 Time-of-Use Energy Cost Reduction 1138
13. Risk Assessment 1139
13.1 Overview 1139
13.2 Installation Economics 1139
13.3 Monetizing Storage Benefits 1139
14. Long Distance Transmission of Renewable Energy 1140
14.1 Introduction 1140
14.2 Options for Long Distance Transmission 1141
14.3 Options for Direct Current Transmission 1142
14.4 Power Distribution for Urban Areas 1145
15. Challenges Facing the Industry 1147
16. Case Study: New York State 1148


VOLUME II

Section 1: Analysis of Federal and State Investment Incentives
1. Government and State-Level Investment Incentives 42
2. How Companies Benefit and Lose from the Energy Policy Act of 2005 44
3. Financial Incentives for Renewable Energy Market by State 45
3.1 Alabama 45
Local Government Energy Loan Program 45
TVA - Generation Partners Program 45
TVA - Mid-Sized Renewable Standard Offer Program 46
3.2 Alaska 47
Alaska Energy Authority - Renewable Energy Grant Program 47
Golden Valley Electric Association - Sustainable Natural Alternative Power (SNAP) Program 48
Local Option - Property Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy Systems 49
Power Project Loan Fund 49
3.3 Arizona 50
APS - Renewable Energy Incentive Program 50
Chandler - Expedited Plan Review for Green Buildings 51
Energy Equipment Property Tax Exemption 52
Non-Residential Solar & Wind Tax Credit 53
Renewable Energy Business Tax Incentives 53
Property Tax Assessment for Renewable Energy Equipment 55
Renewable Energy Production Tax Credit 56
Residential Solar and Wind Energy Systems Tax Credit 58
Solar and Wind Equipment Sales Tax Exemption 58
Sulphur Springs Valley EC - SunWatts Loan Program 59
Sulphur Springs Valley EC - SunWatts Rebate Program 59
TEP - Renewable Energy Credit Purchase Program 60
Trico Electric Cooperative - SunWatts Incentive Program 61
UES - Renewable Energy Credit Purchase Program 62
3.4 Arkansas 64
Industrial Energy Technology Revolving Loan Fund 64
Renewable Technology Rebate Fund 64
Wind Energy Manufacturing Tax Incentive 64
3.5 California 65
Increased Renewable Energy Requirement 65
Burbank Water & Power - Green Building Incentive Program 66
California Feed-In Tariff 66
City of Palo Alto Utilities - Renewable Energy Credit Purchase Program 67
Emerging Renewables Program 68
Marin Clean Energy - Feed-In Tariff 69
Sales Tax Exemption for Alternative Energy Manufacturing Equipment 69
San Bernardino County - Green Building Incentive 70
Santa Monica - Expedited Permitting for Green Buildings 71
Self-Generation Incentive Program 71
3.6 Colorado 72
Improvement Districts for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Improvements 72
Boulder County - ClimateSmart Loan Program 74
Direct Lending Revolving Loan Program 76
Highline Electric Association - Renewable Energy Rebate Program 76
Holy Cross Energy - WE CARE Rebates 77
La Plata Electric Association - Renewable Generation Rebate Program 77
Local Option - Property Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy Systems 78
New Energy Economic Development Grant Program 78
Renewable Energy Property Tax Assessment 79
Sales and Use Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy Equipment 79
San Miguel Power Association - Renewable Energy Rebate Program 80
Southeast Colorado Power Association - Renewable Energy Rebate 80
United Power - Renewable Energy Rebate Program 81
3.7 Connecticut 81
CCEF - On-Site Renewable DG Program 81
CCEF - Operational Demonstration Program 82
CHIF - Energy Conservation Loan 83
DPUC - Low-Interest Loans for Customer-Side Distributed Resources 84
New Energy Technology Program 85
Property Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy Systems 86
Sales and Use Taxes for Items Used in Renewable Energy Industries 87
3.8 Delaware 87
Delaware Electric Cooperative - Green Energy Program Incentives 87
Delmarva Power - Green Energy Program Incentives 89
DEMEC Member Utilities - Green Energy Program Incentives (8 utilities) 91
Research and Development Grants 92
Sustainable Energy Utility (SEU) - Efficiency Plus Homes (Green for Green) 92
Sustainable Energy Utility (SEU) - Non-Residential Efficiency Plus Financing Program 93
Technology and Demonstration Grants 94
3.9 District of Columbia 95
Renewable Energy Incentive Program 95
3.10 Florida 96
Special Districts 96
Miami-Dade County - Green Buildings Expedite Process 97
3.11 Georgia 97
Clean Energy Tax Credit 97
TVA - Generation Partners Program 98
TVA - Mid-Sized Renewable Standard Offer Program 99
3.12 Hawaii 99
Farm and Aquaculture Alternative Energy Loan 99
Hawaii Feed-in Tariff 99
High Technology Business Investment Tax Credit 100
Honolulu - Real Property Tax Exemption for Alternative Energy Improvements 101
Priority Permit Processing for Green Buildings 102
Solar and Wind Energy Credit 102
3.13 Idaho 104
Avista Utilities (Electric) - Commercial Energy Efficiency Incentives Program 104
Property Tax Exemption for Wind and Geothermal Energy Producers 104
Renewable Energy Equipment Sales Tax Refund 105
Renewable Energy Project Bond Program 105
Residential Alternative Energy Tax Deduction 106
3.14 Illinois 106
Chicago - Green Permit and Green Homes Programs 106
Commercial Wind Energy Property Valuation 107
Cultivate Illinois - Green Energy Loans (Illinois State Treasurer's Office Link Deposit Loan Program) 108
DCEO - Solar and Wind Energy Rebate Program 109
Illinois Clean Energy Community Foundation Grants 110
Illinois Finance Authority Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Project Financing 111
Illinois State Board of Education - School Energy Efficiency Grant Program 112
Sales Tax Exemption for Wind Energy Business Designated High Impact Business 112
3.15 Indiana 113
Indianapolis Power & Light - Small-Scale Renewable Energy Incentive Program 113
Indianapolis Power & Light Co. - Rate REP (Renewable Energy Production) 113
Renewable Energy Property Tax Exemption 114
3.16 Iowa 114
Alternate Energy Revolving Loan Program 114
Energy Replacement Generation Tax Exemption 115
Farmers Electric Cooperative (Kalona) - Renewable Energy Purchase Rate 116
Farmers Electric Cooperative (Kalona) - Renewable Energy Rebates 116
Interstate Power and Light (Alliant Energy) - Residential Renewable Energy Rebates 117
Iowa Building Energy $mart Program 117
3.17 Kansas 118
Efficiency Kansas Revolving Loan Program 118
Renewable Electricity Facility Tax Credit 119
Renewable Energy Property Tax Exemption 119
Solar and Wind Manufacturing Incentive 120
3.18 Kentucky 120
Green Bank of Kentucky - Energy Efficiency Loans for State Government Agencies 120
Mountain Association for Community Economic Development - Energy Efficient Enterprise Loan Program 121
Renewable Energy Tax Credit 122
Tax Credit for Renewable Energy Facilities 123
Tax Exemption for Large-Scale Renewable Energy Projects 124
3.19 Louisiana 125
Sustainable Energy Financing Districts 125
Tax Credit for Solar and Wind Energy Systems on Residential Property 125
3.20 Maine 127
Community Based Renewable Energy Production Incentive (Pilot Program) 127
Efficiency Maine - Small Business Low-Interest Loan Program 128
Efficiency Maine - Solar and Wind Energy Rebate Program 129
Local Option - Property Assessed Clean Energy 130
Sales and Use Tax Refund for Qualified Community Wind Generators 131
Voluntary Renewable Resources Grants 131
3.21 Maryland 132
Anne Arundel County - High Performance Dwelling Property Tax Credit 132
Baltimore County - Property Tax Credit for High Performance Buildings and Homes 132
Carroll County - Green Building Property Tax Credit 134
Clean Energy Grant Program - Windswept 134
Clean Energy Production Tax Credit 135
Howard County - High Performance Building Property Tax Credit 136
Income Tax Credit for Green Buildings 136
Jane E. Lawton Conservation Loan Program 137
Local Option - Property Tax Credit for High Performance Buildings 138
Montgomery County - High Performance Building Property Tax Credit 139
Property Tax Exemption for Solar and Wind Energy Systems 139
Sales and Use Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy Equipment 140
State Agency Loan Program 140
3.22 Massachusetts 140
Alternative Energy and Energy Conservation Patent Exemption 140
DOER - Green Communities Grant Program 141
Excise Tax Deduction for Solar- or Wind-Powered Systems 142
Excise Tax Exemption for Solar- or Wind-Powered Systems 142
MassCEC - Commonwealth Wind Incentive Program – Micro Wind Initiative 142
Reading Municipal Light Department - Business Energy Efficiency Rebate Program 144
Renewable Energy Equipment Sales Tax Exemption 144
Renewable Energy Property Tax Exemption 144
Residential Renewable Energy Income Tax Credit 145
3.23 Michigan 145
Alternative Energy Personal Property Tax Exemption 145
Energy Efficiency Grants 147
Energy Revolving Loan Fund - Clean Energy Advanced Manufacturing 148
Local Option - Property Assessed Clean Energy 148
Nonrefundable Business Activity Tax Credit 149
Renewable Energy Renaissance Zones 149
3.24 Minnesota 150
Agricultural Improvement Loan Program 150
Commercial Small Wind Rebate Program 151
Local Option - Energy Improvement Financing Programs 152
MHFA Fix-up Fund 153
Sustainable Agriculture Loan Program 153
Value-Added Stock Loan Participation Program 154
Wind and Solar-Electric (PV) Systems Exemption 154
Wind Energy Sales Tax Exemption 155
3.25 Mississippi 156
Mississippi Clean Energy Initiative 156
3.26 Missouri 156
Energy Revolving Fund Loans 156
Jefferson City - Property Assessed Clean Energy 157
Clean Energy Development Boards 157
3.26 Montana 158
Alternative Energy Investment Tax Credit 158
Corporate Property Tax Reduction for New/Expanded Generating Facilities 159
Generation Facility Corporate Tax Exemption 160
NorthWestern Energy - USB Renewable Energy Fund 160
Property Tax Abatement for Production and Manufacturing Facilities 161
Renewable Energy Systems Exemption 161
Residential Alternative Energy System Tax Credit 162
3.27 Nebraska 162
Dollar and Energy Savings Loans 162
Sales and Use Tax Exemption for Community Wind Projects 163
3.28 Nevada 164
Local Option - Special Improvement Districts 164
NV Energy - RenewableGenerations Rebate Program 165
Portfolio Energy Credits 166
Property Tax Abatement for Green Buildings 167
Renewable Energy Producers Property Tax Abatement 167
Renewable Energy Sales and Use Tax Abatement 167
Renewable Energy Systems Property Tax Exemption 168
3.29 New Hampshire 168
Community Development Finance Authority - Enterprise Energy Fund (Grant) 168
Local Option - Energy Efficiency & Clean Energy Districts 169
Local Option - Property Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy 169
Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Business Loan 170
Renewable Energy Rebate Program 170
3.30 New Jersey 171
Assessment of Farmland Hosting Renewable Energy Systems 171
Edison Innovation Clean Energy Manufacturing Fund - Grants and Loans 172
Grid-Connected Renewables Program 173
New Jersey Renewable Energy Incentive Program 173
Property Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy Systems 174
Wind Manufacturing Tax Credit 174
3.31 New Mexico 175
Alternative Energy Product Manufacturers Tax Credit 175
El Paso Electric Company - Small and Medium System Renewable Energy Certificate Purchase Program 176
Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Bond Program 177
Gross Receipts Tax Exemption for Sales of Wind and Solar Systems to Government Entities 177
Local Option - Renewable Energy Financing District/Solar Energy Improvement Special Assessments 177
Renewable Energy Production Tax Credit 178
Sustainable Building Tax Credit 179
3.32 New York 180
Local Option - Municipal Sustainable Energy Programs 180
Energy Waste Improvement Districts 180
Energy Conservation Improvements Property Tax Exemption 181
Local Option - Solar, Wind & Biomass Energy Systems Exemption 182
Long Island Power Authority - Wind Energy Rebate Program 183
NYSERDA - Clean Energy Business Growth and Development 184
NYSERDA - Green Residential Building Program 184
NYSERDA - On-Site Small Wind Incentive Program 185
NYSERDA - Renewable, Clean Energy, and Energy Efficient Product Manufacturing Incentive Program 186
3.33 North Carolina 188
Asheville - Building Permit Fee Waiver 188
Duke Energy - Standard Purchase Offer for RECs 188
Energy Improvement Loan Program (EILP) 189
Local Option - Financing Program for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency 189
Local Option - Green Building Incentives 190
NC GreenPower Production Incentive 190
North Carolina Green Business Fund 191
PSNC Energy (Gas) - Green Building Rate Discount 192
Renewable Energy Equipment Manufacturer Tax Credit 192
Renewable Energy Tax Credit 192
3.34 North Dakota 194
Large Wind Property Tax Reduction 194
Renewable Energy Property Tax Exemption 195
Renewable Energy Tax Credit 195
3.35 Ohio 196
Cincinnati - Property Tax Abatement for Green Buildings 196
City of Cleveland - Residential Property Tax Abatement for Green Buildings 197
Energy Conservation for Ohioans (ECO-Link) Program 198
Energy Conversion Facilities Sales Tax Exemption 199
Hamilton County - Home Improvement Program 199
Local Option - Municipal Alternative Energy Revolving Loan Program 200
Local Option - Special Energy Improvement Districts 201
Ohio Job Stimulus Plan (Advanced Energy Program) 202
Qualified Energy Property Tax Exemption for Projects 250 kW or Less 203
Qualified Energy Property Tax Exemption for Projects over 250 kW (Payment in Lieu) 204
Tax Incentives for Improving Air Quality in Ohio (Ohio Air Quality Development Authority) 205
3.36 Oklahoma 206
Community Energy Education Management Program 206
Energy Loan Fund for Schools 206
Higher Education Energy Loan Program 207
Tax Credit for Manufacturers of Small Wind Turbines 207
Zero-Emission Facilities Production Tax Credit 208
3.37 Oregon 209
Business Energy Tax Credit 209
Community Renewable Energy Feasibility Fund Program 210
Energy Trust - Community Wind Incentive Program 211
Energy Trust - Small Wind Incentive Program 211
Renewable Energy Systems Exemption 212
Residential Energy Tax Credit 212
Small-Scale Energy Loan Program 214
Tax Credit for Renewable Energy Equipment Manufacturers 215
3.38 Pennsylvania 216
DCED - Alternative and Clean Energy Program 216
DCED - High Performance Building Incentives Program 216
DCED - Wind and Geothermal Incentives Program 217
High Performance Green Schools Planning Grants 218
Metropolitan Edison Company SEF Grants (FirstEnergy Territory) 218
Penelec SEF of the Community Foundation for the Alleghenies Grant Program (FirstEnergy Territory) 219
Pennsylvania Energy Development Authority (PEDA) - Grants 219
Pennsylvania Green Energy Loan Fund 220
PPL Electric Utilities - LEED Certification Partnership Program 220
Property Tax Assessment for Commercial Wind Farms 221
Small Business Advantage Grant Program 221
Sustainable Development Fund Financing Program (PECO Territory) 222
Sustainable Energy Fund (SEF) Loan Program (PPL Territory) 222
West Penn Power SEF Commercial Loan Program 223
3.39 Puerto Rico 223
Economic Development Incentives for Renewables 223
Excise Tax Exemption for Farmers 224
Property Tax Exemption for Solar and Renewable Energy Equipment 224
Sales and Use Tax Exemption for Green Energy 225
State Energy Program - Agricultural Renewable Energy Rebate Program 225
State Energy Program - Wind Energy Rebate Program 226
Tax Deduction for Solar and Wind Energy Systems 226
3.40 Rhode Island 227
Local Option - Property Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy Systems 227
Renewable Energy Sales Tax Exemption 227
Residential Renewable Energy Tax Credit 227
RIEDC - Renewable Energy Fund Grants 228
3.41 South Carolina 229
Duke Energy - Standard Purchase Offer for RECs 229
Palmetto Clean Energy (PaCE) Program 230
Santee Cooper - Renewable Energy Resource Loans 231
3.42 South Dakota 231
Large Commercial Wind Exemption and Alternative Taxes 231
Renewable Energy System Exemption 232
Small Commercial Wind Energy Property Tax Assessment 232
Wind and Transmission Construction Tax Refund 233
3.43 Tennessee 234
Sales and Use Tax Credit for Emerging Clean Energy Industry 234
Wind Energy Systems Exemption 234
3.44 Texas 235
Department of Rural Affairs - Renewable Energy Demonstration Pilot Program 235
Guadalupe Valley Electric Cooperative - Renewable Energy Rebates 236
LoanSTAR Revolving Loan Program 237
Renewable Energy Systems Property Tax Exemption 237
Solar and Wind Energy Business Franchise Tax Exemption 238
Solar and Wind Energy Device Franchise Tax Deduction 238
3.45 Utah 239
Alternative Energy Development Incentive 239
City of St. George - Solar and Wind Rebate Program 240
Renewable Energy Sales Tax Exemption 240
Renewable Energy Systems Tax Credit 241
3.46 Vermont 242
Clean Energy Development Fund (CEDF) Loan Program 242
Local Option - Clean Energy Finance Districts 243
Local Option - Property Tax Exemption 244
Renewable Energy Systems Sales Tax Exemption 244
Vermont Small-Scale Renewable Energy Incentive Program 244
Vermont Standard Offer for Qualifying SPEED Resources 246
3.47 Virgin Islands 247
U.S. Virgin Islands - Discretionary Grant Program 247
U.S. Virgin Islands - Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Rebate Program 248
3.48 Virginia 248
Arlington County - Green Building Incentive Program 248
Commonwealth's Energy Leasing Program 249
Green Jobs Tax Credit 249
3.49 Washington 250
Avista Utilities (Electric) - Commercial Energy Efficiency Incentives Program 250
Chelan County PUD - Sustainable Natural Alternative Power Producers Program 250
King County - Commercial Green Building Grants Program 250
Okanogan County PUD - Sustainable Natural Alternative Power Program 251
Orcas Power & Light - Production Incentive 252
Renewable Energy Sales and Use Tax Exemption 252
Seattle - Density Bonus for Green Buildings 253
Washington Renewable Energy Production Incentives 253
3.50 West Virginia 255
Special Assessment for Wind Energy Systems 255
Tax Exemption for Wind Energy Generation 255
3.51 Wisconsin 256
Clean Energy Business Loan Program 256
Focus on Energy - Renewable Energy Grant Programs 256
Focus on Energy - Renewable Energy Incentives 257
Renewable Energy Sales Tax Exemptions 257
River Falls Municipal Utilities - Renewable Energy Finance Program 258
Solar and Wind Energy Equipment Exemption 259
We Energies - Direct Financial Incentives for Renewable Energy Projects 259
Xcel Energy - Renewable Energy Buy-Back Rates 260
3.52 Wyoming 260
Powder River Energy Corporation - Renewable Energy Loan Program 260
Renewable Energy Sales Tax Exemption 261
4. Federal Incentives for Renewable Energy 262
4.1 Energy-Efficient Commercial Buildings Tax Deduction 262
4.2 Modified Accelerated Cost-Recovery System (MACRS) + Bonus Depreciation (2008-2012) 263
4.3 Residential Energy Conservation Subsidy Exclusion (Corporate) 265
4.4 Business Energy Investment Tax Credit (ITC) 267
4.5 Energy-Efficient New Homes Tax Credit for Home Builders 269
4.6 Renewable Electricity Production Tax Credit (PTC) 270
4.7 Tribal Energy Program Grant 272
4.8 U.S. Department of Treasury - Renewable Energy Grants 273
4.9 USDA - High Energy Cost Grant Program 273
4.10 USDA - Rural Energy for America Program (REAP) Grants 274
4.11 Clean Renewable Energy Bonds (CREBs) 275
4.12 Energy-Efficient Mortgages 276
4.13 Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs) 279
4.14 U.S. Department of Energy - Loan Guarantee Program 281
4.15 Energy-Efficient Appliance Manufacturing Tax Credit 282
4.16 Renewable Energy Production Incentive (REPI) 284
4.17 Residential Energy Efficiency Tax Credit 285
4.18 Residential Renewable Energy Tax Credit 286
5. Renewable Energy Regulations and Policies by State 290
5.1 Alaska 290
Net Metering 290
5.2 American Samoa 290
Net Metering 290
5.3 Arizona 291
Net Metering 291
Chandler - Green Building Requirement for City Buildings 292
Interconnection Guidelines 292
Renewable Energy and Green Building Standards in New State Buildings 293
Renewable Energy Standard 294
Scottsdale - Green Building Policy for Public Buildings 294
Solar & Wind Equipment Certification 295
SRP - Net Metering 295
5.4 Arkansas 296
Arkansas - Net Metering 296
Green Building Standards for State Facilities 296
Interconnection Guidelines 297
5.5 California 298
Green Building Action Plan for State Facilities 298
Berkeley - Green Building Standards for City Owned and Operated Projects 299
California - County Wind Ordinance Standards 301
California - Net Metering 301
City of Palo Alto - Green Building Requirement 304
Interconnection Standards 304
Marin County - Green Building Requirements 306
Public Benefits Funds for Renewables & Efficiency 308
Renewables Portfolio Standard 310
San Diego - Green Power Purchasing 311
San Diego - Sustainable Building Policy 311
San Francisco - Green Building Code 312
San Jose - Green Building Program 314
5.6 Colorado 315
Boulder - ClimateSmart Solar Grant Program 315
Boulder County - EnergySmart Residential Energy Efficiency Loan Program 315
Boulder County - EnergySmart Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program 315
City of Aurora – Main Street Commercial Energy Efficiency & Conservation Rebate Program 316
City of Aurora – Solar Domestic Water Heater Rebate 316
City of Aurora – Solar Permit Offset and Energy Audit Rebate 317
City of Lakewood - DIY Attic Insulation Rebate 317
City of Lakewood - Solar Permit Fee Rebate 317
Denver - Small Business Energy Program 317
Roaring Fork Valley - Energy Efficient Appliance Program 318
Roaring Fork Valley - Renewable Energy Rebate Program 318
Local Option - Improvement Districts for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Improvements 318
Boulder County - ClimateSmart Loan Program 319
Local Option - Property Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy Systems 319
Property Tax Exemption for Residential Renewable Energy Equipment 320
Renewable Energy Property Tax Assessment 320
Boulder - Solar Sales and Use Tax Rebate 321
Sales and Use Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy Equipment 321
New Energy Economic Development Grant Program 322
Direct Lending Revolving Loan Program 322
Colorado - Commercial Renewable Energy Rebate Program 323
Colorado - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program 323
Colorado - Residential Renewable Energy Rebate Program 323
Holy Cross Energy - Commercial and Industrial Grant Program 324
Longmont Power & Communications - Residential Energy Efficiency Grant Program 324
Colorado Springs Utilities – Home Improvement Financing 324
Fort Collins Utilities - ZILCH (Zero Interest Loans for Conservation Help) Program 324
Atmos Energy - Energy Efficiency Rebate Program 325
Black Hills Energy (Electric) - Commercial Energy Efficiency Program 325
Black Hills Energy (Electric) - Residential Efficiency Program for Builders 326
Black Hills Energy - On-Site Solar PV Rebate Program 326
City of Aspen - Energy Assessment Rebate Program 326
Colorado Natural Gas - Energy Efficiency Rebate Program 326
Colorado Springs Utilities - Energy Efficient Builder Program 327
Colorado Springs Utilities - Renewable Energy Rebate Program 327
Delta-Montrose Electric Association - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program 328
Empire Electric Association - Energy Efficiency Credit Program 328
Estes Park Light and Power Department - Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program 328
Fort Collins Utilities - Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program 328
Fort Collins Utilities - Home Efficiency Program 329
Fort Collins Utilities - Residential and Small Commercial Appliance Rebate Program 330
Gunnison County Electric - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program 330
Highline Electric Association - Renewable Energy Rebate Program 330
Holy Cross Energy - Appliance Rebate 331
Holy Cross Energy - WE CARE Rebates 331
La Plata Electric Association - Energy Efficient Equipment Rebate Program 331
La Plata Electric Association - Renewable Generation Rebate Program 332
Longmont Power & Communications - Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program 332
Longmont Power & Communications - Residential and Commercial Appliance Rebate Program 333
Loveland Water & Power - Refrigerator Recycling Program 333
Mountain View Electric Association, Inc - Energy Efficiency Credit Program 333
Poudre Valley REA - Energy Efficiency Rebate Program 334
Poudre Valley REA - Photovoltaic Rebate Program 334
San Miguel Power Association - Energy Efficiency Rebate Program 334
San Miguel Power Association - Renewable Energy Rebate Program 335
Sangre De Cristo Electric Association - Energy Efficiency Credit Program 335
SourceGas - Energy Efficiency Rebate Program 336
Southeast Colorado Power Association - Energy Efficiency Rebate Program 336
Southeast Colorado Power Association - Renewable Energy Rebate 336
United Power - Business Energy Efficiency Rebate Program 337
United Power - Energy Efficiency Rebate Program 337
United Power - Renewable Energy Rebate Program 337
Xcel Energy (Electric) - Business Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs 338
Xcel Energy - Residential ENERGY STAR Rebate Program 338
Xcel Energy - Solar*Rewards Program 339
5.7 Connecticut 339
Connecticut - Green Power Purchase Plan 339
Connecticut - Net Metering 340
Connecticut Building Energy Code with Green Building Provisions 341
Connecticut Municipalities - SmartPower 20% by 2010 Campaign 342
Green Building Standards for State Facilities 342
Interconnection Standards 343
Renewables Portfolio Standard 344
Solar and Wind Contractor Licensing 345
5.8 Delaware 346
Delaware - Net Metering 346
Delaware Electric Cooperative - Green Energy Fund 347
DEMEC - Green Energy Fund 347
Energy Conservation Standards for State Facilities 348
Green Energy Fund 349
Interconnection Guidelines 350
Renewables Portfolio Standard 351
Wind Access and Permitting Law 352
5.9 District of Columbia 353
District of Columbia - Net Metering 353
Green Building Requirement 354
Interconnection Standards 355
Renewables Portfolio Standard 355
Sustainable Energy Trust Fund 356
5.10 Florida 357
Florida - Net Metering 357
Interconnection Standards 358
JEA - Clean Power Program 358
Renewable Energy Easements & Rights Laws 359
5.11 Georgia 359
Atlanta - Sustainable Development Design Standards 359
Chamblee - LEED Requirement for Public and Commercial Buildings 359
Georgia - Net Metering 360
Interconnection Guidelines 360
5.12 Hawaii 361
Hawaii - Net Metering 361
Interconnection Standards 362
Renewable Portfolio Standard 362
Renewables and Efficiency in State Facilities & Operations 363
5.13 Idaho 363
Avista Utilities - Net Metering 363
Idaho Power - Net Metering 364
Rocky Mountain Power - Net Metering 364
5.14 Illinois 365
Chicago - Green Power Purchasing 365
Energy Efficiency in State Government 365
Illinois - Interconnection Standards 366
Illinois - Net Metering 367
Renewable Energy Resources Trust Fund 367
Renewable Portfolio Standard 368
Statewide Renewable Energy Setback Standards 369
5.15 Indiana 369
Bloomington - Green Building Requirements for Municipal Buildings 369
Energy Efficient State Building Initiative 369
Net Metering 370
Interconnection Standards 371
5.16 Iowa 371
Alternative Energy Law (AEL) 371
Interconnection Standards 372
Iowa - Net Metering 372
Mandatory Utility Green Power Option 373
5.17 Kansas 373
Greensburg - Green Building Requirement for New Municipal Buildings 373
Interconnection Guidelines 373
Kansas - Net Metering 374
Renewables Portfolio Standard 374
5.18 Louisiana 375
City of New Orleans - Net Metering 375
Interconnection Guidelines 377
Louisiana - Net Metering 378
Renewable Energy Pilot Program 379
5.19 Maine 379
Efficiency Maine Trust - Renewable Resource Fund 379
Energy-Efficient Building Standards for State Facilities 380
Interconnection Standards 381
Maine - Green Power Purchasing 382
Maine - Net Energy Billing 382
Maine Model Wind Energy Facility Ordinance 383
Mandatory Utility Green Power Option 384
Renewables Portfolio Standard 385
5.20 Maryland 385
Energy Conservation in State Buildings 385
Interconnection Standards 387
Maryland - Clean Energy Procurement 387
Maryland - Net Metering 388
Montgomery County - Green Power Purchasing 388
Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard 389
5.21 Massachusetts 390
Boston - Green Power Purchasing 390
Energy Reduction Plan for State Buildings 391
Interconnection Standards 392
Massachusetts - Green Power Purchasing Commitment 392
Massachusetts - Net Metering 393
Model As-of Right Zoning Ordinance or Bylaw: Allowing Use of Wind Energy Facilities 394
Renewable Energy Trust Fund 394
Renewable Portfolio Standard 395
5.22 Michigan 396
Energy Efficiency in State Buildings 396
Grand Rapids - Green Building Requirements for Municipal Buildings 396
Grand Rapids - Green Power Purchasing Policy 396
Interconnection Standards 397
Low-Income and Energy Efficiency Fund (LIEEF) 397
Michigan - Net Metering 398
Model Ordinance for Wind Energy Systems 398
Renewable Energy Standard 399
5.23 Minnesota 399
Community-Based Energy Development (C-BED) Tariff 399
Interconnection Standards 400
Minnesota - Net Metering 400
Renewable Development Fund (RDF) 401
Renewables Portfolio Standard 402
Solar and Wind Easements & Local Option Rights Laws 402
Sustainable Building Guidelines for New State Construction and Renovations 403
Xcel Energy Wind and Biomass Generation Mandate 403
5.24 Missouri 404
Columbia - Renewables Portfolio Standard 404
Interconnection Guidelines 405
Life-Cycle Analysis and Energy Efficiency in State Buildings 406
Missouri - Net Metering 407
Renewable Electricity Standard 408
5.25 Montana 409
Interconnection Guidelines 409
Mandatory Utility Green Power Option 410
Montana - Net Metering 410
Montana Electric Cooperatives - Net Metering 410
Renewable Resource Standard 411
Solar and Wind Easements 412
Universal System Benefits Program 412
5.26 N. Mariana Islands 413
N. Mariana Islands - Renewables Portfolio Standard 413
5.27 Nebraska 414
Interconnection Guidelines 414
Nebraska - Net Metering 414
Solar and Wind Easements 415
5.28 Nevada 415
Energy Portfolio Standard 415
Interconnection Standards 416
Nevada - Net Metering 417
Nevada State Energy Reduction Plan 418
Valley Electric Association - Net Metering 418
Solar and Wind Easements & Rights Laws 419
5.29 New Hampshire 419
Interconnection Standards 419
New Hampshire - Net Metering 420
New Hampshire - Standards for Municipal Small Wind Regulations and Small Wind Model Wind Ordinance 420
Renewables Portfolio Standard 421
5.30 New Jersey 423
High Performance Building Standards in New State Construction 423
High Performance Schools Policy 423
Interconnection Standards 424
New Jersey - Net Metering 425
Renewables Portfolio Standard 426
Societal Benefits Charge 427
Solar and Wind Permitting Laws 428
5.31 New Mexico 429
Albuquerque - Green Power Purchasing 429
Farmington Electric Utility System - Net Metering 429
Interconnection Standards 429
Mandatory Utility Green Power Option 430
New Mexico - Net Metering 430
Renewables Portfolio Standard 431
5.32 New York 432
Energy Efficiency Standards for State Facilities 432
Guidance for Local Wind Energy Ordinances 434
Interconnection Standards 434
Long Island Power Authority - Net Metering 435
Long Island Power Authority - Renewable Electricity Goal 437
New York - Net Metering 437
New York - Renewable Power Procurement Policy 438
New York City - Green Building Requirements for Municipal Buildings 439
Renewable Portfolio Standard 441
Suffolk County - Green Power Purchasing Policy 442
System Benefits Charge 442
5.33 North Carolina 443
North Carolina Model Wind Ordinance 443
Ashe County - Wind Energy System Ordinance 444
Asheville - Efficiency Standards for City Buildings 444
Camden County - Wind Energy Systems Ordinance 445
Carteret County - Wind Energy System Ordinance 445
Currituck County - Wind Energy Systems Ordinance 446
Durham County - High-Performance Building Policy 446
Hyde County - Wind Energy Facility Ordinance 447
Interconnection Standards 447
Kill Devil Hills - Wind Energy Systems Ordinance 448
Madison County - Wind Energy Systems Ordinance 448
North Carolina - Net Metering 449
Pitt County - Wind Energy Systems Ordinance 450
Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standard 450
Tyrrell County - Wind Energy Facility Ordinance 452
Watauga County - Wind Energy System Ordinance 452
5.34 North Dakota 452
North Dakota - Net Metering 452
Renewable and Recycled Energy Objective 452
Wind Easements 454
5.35 Ohio 454
Alternative Energy Resource Standard 454
Interconnection Standards 454
Ohio - Net Metering 456
5.36 Oklahoma 457
High Performance Building Standards in State Buildings 457
Oklahoma - Net Metering 457
Renewable Energy Goal 458
Requirements for Wind Development 458
5.37 Oregon 459
Ashland Electric - Net Metering 459
Energy Trust of Oregon 460
Interconnection Standards 461
Mandatory Utility Green Power Option 461
Model Ordinance for Renewable Energy Projects 461
Oregon - Net Metering 462
Portland - Green Building Policy and LEED Certification 463
Renewable Energy Contractor Licensing 464
Renewable Portfolio Standard 464
Solar and Wind Easements & Rights Laws & Local Option Solar Rights Law 467
5.38 Pennsylvania 467
Alternative Energy Portfolio Standard 467
Interconnection Standards 468
Model Wind Ordinance for Local Governments 468
Montgomery County - Wind Power Purchasing 469
Pennsylvania - Green Power Purchasing 470
Pennsylvania - Net Metering 470
Philadelphia - Green Power Purchasing 471
Public Benefits Programs 471
5.39 Puerto Rico 472
Puerto Rico - Interconnection Standards 472
Puerto Rico - Net Metering 473
Puerto Rico - Renewable Energy Equipment Certification 474
Puerto Rico - Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard 474
Puerto Rico - Solar and Wind Contractor Certification 475
5.40 Rhode Island 476
Green Building Standards for State Facilities 476
Renewable Energy Standard 477
Rhode Island - Net Metering 477
Rhode Island Renewable Energy Fund (RIREF) 478
5.41 South Carolina 479
Duke Energy - Net Metering 479
Interconnection Guidelines 480
Progress Energy - Net Metering 480
5.42 South Dakota 481
High-Performance Building Requirements for State Buildings 481
Interconnection Standards 481
Model Ordinance for Siting of Wind-Energy Systems 482
Renewable, Recycled and Conserved Energy Objective 483
Wind Easements 484
5.43 Texas 485
Alternative Energy in New State Construction 485
Austin - Commercial and Residential Green Building Requirements 485
Austin - Green Building Requirement for City Projects 486
Austin - Green Power Purchasing 486
Austin - Renewables Portfolio Standard 487
Austin Energy - Net Metering 488
City of Brenham - Net Metering 488
Dallas - Green Building Requirements for Municipal Buildings 489
Dallas - Green Energy Purchasing 489
Green Mountain Energy Renewable Rewards Program 490
Houston - Green Building Requirements for New Municipal Structures 491
Houston - Green Power Purchasing 491
Interconnection Standards 492
Mandatory Renewable Energy Educational Materials 492
Plano - LEED Standard for Public Buildings 492
Renewable Generation Requirement 493
San Antonio City Public Service (CPS Energy) - Renewables Portfolio Goal 493
5.44 Utah 494
City of St. George - Net Metering 494
Interconnection Standards 494
Murray City Power - Net Metering Pilot Program 495
Renewables Portfolio Goal 496
Salt Lake City - Green Power Purchasing 497
Salt Lake City - High Performance Buildings Requirement 497
Utah - Net Metering 498
Washington City Power - Net Metering 498
5.45 Vermont 499
Clean Energy Development Fund (CEDF) 499
Interconnection Standards 500
Line Extension Alternatives 500
Renewable Energy Rights 500
Sustainably Priced Energy Enterprise Development (SPEED) Goals 501
Vermont - Net Metering 502
5.46 Virgin Islands 503
U.S. Virgin Islands - Net Metering 503
U.S. Virgin Islands - Solar and Wind Easements & Rights Laws 503
5.47 Virginia 504
Fairfax County - Green Power Purchase 504
Interconnection Standards 504
Mandatory Utility Green Power Option 505
Rockingham County - Small Wind Ordinance 505
State Buildings Energy Reduction Plan 506
Virginia - Net Metering 506
Voluntary Renewable Energy Portfolio Goal 507
5.48 Washington 507
Clark County - Green Power Purchasing 507
Grays Harbor PUD - Net Metering 508
Green Building and Energy Reduction Standards for State Agencies 508
Interconnection Standards 509
Mandatory Utility Green Power Option 510
Renewable Energy Standard 510
Seattle - Sustainable Building Policy 511
Washington - Net Metering 511
5.49 West Virginia 513
Alternative and Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard 513
Interconnection Standards 513
West Virginia - Net Metering 513
5.50 Wisconsin 515
Energy Efficiency and Green Building Standards for State Buildings 515
Focus on Energy Program 515
Interconnection Standards 516
Madison - Green Power Purchasing 517
Madison - Solar & Wind Access and Planning Laws 518
Net Metering 519
Renewable Portfolio Standard 519
Solar and Wind Rights 519
Wisconsin - Green Power Purchasing 521
Wisconsin - Wind Siting Rules and Model Small Wind Ordinance 521
5.51 Wyoming 522
Interconnection Guidelines 522
Wyoming - Net Metering 523
Wyoming Wind Energy Permitting Law 523
6. Federal Regulations and Policies for Renewable Energy 525
6.1 Federal Appliance Standards 525
6.2 Energy Goals and Standards for Federal Government 526
6.3 U.S. Federal Government - Green Power Purchasing Goal 528
6.4 Interconnection Standards for Small Generators 529
7. Energy Efficiency Rules and Incentives by State 531
8. Federal Budget 2012 – Boost for the Renewable Energy Industry 533

Section 2: Invest, Operate, and Conduct Business in U.S. Renewables Market as Foreign Firm
9. How to Enter the U.S. Renewable Energy Industry as non-U.S. Company 536
9.1 Opportunities for Italian Companies 536
9.2 Understanding U.S. Patents 537
9.3 Resolving Patent Issues 539
9.4 Case Study: Mitsubishi/GE Turbine Patent Dispute 540
9.5 Performing a Freedom to Operate Study 541
10. Opportunity of Green Exports for the U.S. 543
10.1 Overview 543
10.2 Lack of Finance 545
10.3 Impact of China 546
10.4 New Export Strategy for Renewables 548
11. Environmental Externalities, Market Distortions and the Economics of Renewable Energy Technologies 550
11.1 Introduction 550
11.2 Externalities 551
11.2.1 Definition 551
11.2.2 Externality Adders 552
11.3 Life Cycle Analysis 553
11.3.1 Defining Product Cycle’s Boundaries 556
11.3.2 Identifying Environmental Emissions and Resulting Physical Impacts on Receptor Areas 559
11.3.3 Cost of Damage/Cost of Abatement? 560
11.3.4 Quantifying Physical Damage in Monetary Terms 561
11.4 Costs of Electricity Generating Technologies 562
11.5 Assessing the Externalities of Power Generation 565
11.5.1 Pollution Damage from Emissions Other than CO2 566
11.5.2 External Damage Costs of Emissions of CO2 568
11.5.3 External Damage Costs for Electricity Production 570
11.5.4 Uncertainty and the Marginal Costs of CO2 Emissions 571
11.6 Internalizing the Externalities of Electricity Production 572
11.6.1 Internalizing Externalities 572
11.6.2 Policy Options for “Internalizing” Externalities 573
11.7 Conclusion 574
12. Italian Companies Doing Business in the U.S. 576
12.1 U.S. Economic System and Landscape 576
12.2 Overview of U.S. Business Environment 578
12.2.1 The Legal Dimension 579
12.2.2 Taxes 579
12.2.3 Salary and Labor Rates 580
12.2.4 Importance of Location 580
12.3 Starting a Business in the U.S. – Rules and Regulations 580
12.4. Dealing with Construction Permits 583
12.4.1 Federal Requirements 584
12.4.2 State Requirements 585
12.4.3 Business Licenses 585
12.4.4 Occupations and Professions 585
12.4.5 Licenses Based on Products Sold 585
12.4.6 Tax Registration 586
12.4.7 Trade Name Registration 586
12.4.8 Employer Registrations 586
12.5 Registering the Company 586
12.5.1 Obtain a Title Report 587
12.5.2 Conduct an Environmental Review 587
12.5.3 Buyer Obtains and Fills the Forms Needed for the Transfer 588
12.5.4 Title is Recorded with the County Clerk 589
12.6 Getting Credit 590
12.7 Finding Investors in the U.S. 592
12.8 Protecting Investors 593
12.9 Trading Across Borders 594
12.10 Paying Taxes 595
12.11 Enforcing Contracts 596
12.12 Closing a Business 597
Checklist 597
13. Funding Sources for Renewable Energy in the U.S. 600
13.1 Overview 600
13.2 Technology-wise Investment 601
13.3 Financing for Large Scale On-Grid Renewable Power Projects 603
13.4 Financing for Off-Grid Renewable Projects for Rural Electrification 604
13.5 Investment in Sustainable Energy versus Conventional Energy 605
13.6 Copenhagen Deal 607
14. How Italian Companies Find U.S. Investor Partners 609
14.1 Foreign Investment Scenario in the U.S. 609
14.2 Attracting Investors 611
14.3 Gathering Venture Capital 613
14.4 Types of Finance Available for Renewable Energy Projects 615
14.5 Economy of Investments in Renewable Energy for Italian Companies in the U.S. 617
15. Tax Incentives for Renewable Energy in the U.S. and How Italian Companies Can Benefit From Them 621
15.1 Overview 621
15.2 Why Use Tax Incentives? 622
15.2.1 Targeting Specific Needs 622
15.2.2 Creating Tax Parity or Encouragement for Renewable Energy 623
15.2.3 Relation to Other Incentives 623
16. Top Tax Incentives for Renewable Energy in the U.S. Best Suited for Italian Companies 624
16.1 Investment Tax Incentives: Large-Scale Applications 624
16.2 Investment Tax Incentives: Customer-Sited Applications 625
16.3 Production Tax Incentives 627
16.4 Property Tax Reductions 627
16.5 Value-Added Tax Reductions 628
16.6 Excise (Sales) Tax Reductions 629
16.7 Import Duty Reductions 630
16.8 Accelerated Depreciation 631
16.9 Research, Development, Demonstration, and Equipment Manufacturing Tax Incentives 632
16.10 Tax Holidays 633
16.11 Taxes on Conventional Fuels 634
17. Renewable Energy Tax Incentives Policy Preferences 636
17.1 Overview 636
17.2 How Italian Companies Can Utilize Each Type of Renewable Energy Tax Incentive 637

Section 3: Partnership Opportunities with U.S Firms
18. Major Players in the Industry 641
18.1 Companies Operating in the Biofuels Sector 641
18.1.1 Abengoa Bioenergy 641
18.1.2 A2BE Carbon Capture 641
18.1.3 Allegro Biodiesel Corporation 643
18.1.4 American AgFuels 644
18.1.5 ALF Industries 644
18.1.6 Archer-Daniels-Midland Company 645
18.1.7 Aventine Renewable Energy 652
18.1.8 Bay Biodiesel LLC 653
18.1.9 BEST Energies 654
18.1.10 Biodiesel Systems, LLC 655
18.1.11 Bio Fuel Systems 656
18.1.12 Biotane Fuels 656
18.1.13 BlueFire Ethanol 657
18.1.14 Blue Marble Energy 658
18.1.15 BRI Energy, LLC 659
18.1.16 Broin Companies 659
18.1.17 Colusa Biomass Energy Corporation 660
18.1.18 DuPont Danisco 660
18.1.19 Dyadic International, Inc 660
18.1.20 Evolution Fuels (Formerly Earth Biofuels) 661
18.1.21 Fuel Bio Holdings 661
18.1.22 Genencor 663
18.1.23 Green Star Products, Inc. 664
18.1.24 Iogen Corporation 664
18.1.25 Imperium Renewables 665
18.1.26 LS9, Inc 666
18.1.27 Novozymes 667
18.1.28 PetroSun 668
18.1.29 Sapphire Energy 668
18.1.30 Solazyme 669
18.1.31 West Biofuels LLC 671
18.1.32 Verenium Corporation 672
18.1.33 XL Renewables 672
18.2 Companies Operating in the Solar Power Sector 674
18.2.1 Abound Solar 674
18.2.2 Akeena Solar, Inc 675
18.2.3 Aleo Solar 676
18.2.4 Amonix Incorporated 677
18.2.5 Antec Solar Energy AG 678
18.2.6 Applied Solar, Inc 679
18.2.7 Ascent Solar Technologies, Inc 680
18.2.8 ASE Americas, Inc 680
18.2.9 AstroPower Inc 681
18.2.10 Atlantis Energy Inc 682
18.2.11 AVANCIS 683
18.2.12 BP Solar 685
18.2.13 Canon 686
18.2.14 Calyxo GMBH 687
18.2.15 China Solar Energy Holdings 688
18.2.16 Citizenre 689
18.2.17 CSG Solar 692
18.2.18 Cyrium Technologies 693
18.2.19 DayStar Technologies, Inc. 694
18.2.20 EIQ Energy, Inc 695
18.2.21 Energy Conversion Devices, Inc 697
18.2.22 Entech Inc 697
18.2.23 EPV Solar 700
18.2.24 Ersol 700
18.2.25 Ertex Solar 701
18.2.26 Evergreen Solar, Inc 702
18.2.27 Ever-Q 704
18.2.28 First Solar, Inc 704
18.2.29 Global Solar 706
18.2.30 Green Energy Technology 707
18.2.31 GT Solar 708
18.2.32 Greenshine New Energy 710
18.2.33 HelioGrid 711
18.2.34 HelioVolt 711
18.2.35 Honda Soltec 713
18.2.36 International Solar Electric Technology 714
18.2.37 Inventux Technologies AG 714
18.2.38 JA Solar Holdings Co, LTD 715
18.2.39 Johanna Solar 715
18.2.40 Kaneka 716
18.2.41 Konarka Technologies, Inc. 716
18.2.42 Kyocera Solar 718
18.2.43 LDK Solar Co, LTD 719
18.2.44 Miasolé 722
18.2.45 Mitsubishi Electric Corporation 723
18.2.46 Moser Baer 724
18.2.47 Nanosolar 725
18.2.48 Nexpower 727
18.2.49 Odersun 728
18.2.50 Phoenix Solar AG 728
18.2.51 Photowatt International 729
18.2.52 Polar PV 730
18.2.53 PowerFilm, Inc. 731
18.2.54 PowerLight Corporation 732
18.2.55 PrimeStar Solar 733
18.2.56 Pyron Solar 735
18.2.57 Q-Cells 735
18.2.58 QS Solar 736
18.2.59 Quantum PV 737
18.2.60 QuNano 738
18.2.61 REC Solar 738
18.2.62 Sanyo Electric 739
18.2.63 Schott AG 740
18.2.64 Sharp Solar 741
18.2.65 Shell Solar Industries 742
18.2.66 Siemens Solar 743
18.2.67 Signet Solar 744
18.2.68 SkyFuel 745
18.2.69 Skyline Solar 745
18.2.70 Solar Electric Power Company 747
18.2.71 SoloPower 748
18.2.72 SolarWorld, AG 749
18.2.73 Solyndra 749
18.2.74 Sol Voltaics 751
18.2.75 Solterra Renewable Technologies Inc 752
18.2.76 Spectrolab, Inc. 753
18.2.77 Spire Corporation 754
18.2.78 Stirling Energy Systems 755
18.2.79 SunPower Corporation 756
18.2.80 SunEdiso 757
18.2.81 Sunetric 758
18.2.82 Sungevity 760
18.2.83 Suniva 761
18.2.84 SunPower Corporation 761
18.2.85 Suntech Power 765
18.2.86 TerraSolar, Inc. 766
18.2.87 Trina Solar, Ltd 767
18.2.88 United Solar Ovonic 769
18.2.89 Voxtel 769
18.2.90 Würth Solar 771
18.3 Companies Operating in the Wind Power Sector 772
18.3.1 Acciona SA 772
18.3.2 Airtricity 774
18.3.3 American Electric Power Company, Inc. 776
18.3.4 Alstom 786
18.3.5 AREVA SA 794
18.3.6 Blue H Group Technologies Ltd 803
18.3.7 Bornay 804
18.3.8 Clipper Windpower, PLC 805
18.3.9 EDF Energies Nouvelles 806
18.3.10 Emergya Wind Technologies 807
18.3.11 Energie Baden-Wuerttenberg AG (EnBW) 809
18.3.12 Energia Hidroelectrica de Navarra (EHN) 815
18.3.13 E.ON 817
18.3.14 First Wind (Formerly UPC Wind) 820
18.3.15 Forewind 820
18.3.16 Gamesa Corporación Tecnológica 821
18.3.17 GE Wind Power 827
18.3.18 Horizon Wind Energy 828
18.3.19 Iberdrola Renovables 829
18.3.20 LM Wind Power 831
18.3.21 MidAmerican Energy Holdings Company 833
18.3.22 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 842
18.3.23 NextEra Energy Resources 848
18.3.24 Nordex, AG 849
18.3.25 REpower, AG 850
18.3.26 RWE AG 851
18.3.27 Siemens Wind Power 853
18.3.28 Statkraft 854
18.3.29 Statoil 855
18.3.30 Suzlon Energy Limited 856
18.3.31 Vattenfall 865
18.3.32 Vestas Wind Systems, AS 868
18.3.33 Windflow Technology, Ltd 869
18.4 Companies Operating in the Geothermal Energy Sector 872
18.4.1 Calpine Corporation 872
18.4.2 Caithness Energy Development 875
18.4.3 Enel Green Power 875
18.4.4 Nevada Geothermal Power, Inc 878
18.4.5 Northern California Power Agency 879
18.4.6 Ormat International, Inc. 880
18.4.7 U.S. Geothermal Inc. 881
18.5 Companies Operating in the CHP Sector 883
18.5.1 Acumentrics 883
18.5.2 Capstone Turbine Corporation 883
18.5.3 ClearEdge Power 886
18.5.4 Cogeneration Planners, LLC 886
18.5.5 Energetix 887
18.5.6 Husky Energy 888
18.5.7 Infinia 890
18.5.8 Marathon Engine Systems 891
18.5.9 Plug Power 891
18.5.10 Veolia Environnement SA 892
18.5.11 Yanmar America Corporation 893
18.6 Companies Operating in the Waste-to-Energy Sector 894
18.6.1 Babcock Power 894
18.6.2 Covanta Energy Corporation 898
18.6.3 Energy Answers Corporation 899
18.6.4 Energy Products of Idaho 900
18.6.5 Interstate Waste Technologies 901
18.6.6 Waste Energy Solutions 902
18.6.7 Wheelabrator Technologies 904
18.7 Companies Operating in the Fuel Cells Sector 906
18.7.1 Altergy Systems 906
18.7.2 Astris Energi Inc. 907
18.7.3 Ballard Power Systems 907
18.7.4 California Fuel Cell Partnership 908
18.7.5 Canon 909
18.7.6 Casio 910
18.7.7 Ceramic Fuel Cells 911
18.7.8 Cellex Power 912
18.7.9 Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization 913
18.7.10 DaimlerChrysler AG 914
18.7.11 Entegris, Inc. 915
18.7.12 Eneos Celltech 916
18.7.13 Fuel Cell Technologies Ltd. 917
18.7.14 FuelCell Energy, Inc. 917
18.7.15 Hitachi 918
18.7.16 IdaTech LLC 919
18.7.17 Jadoo Power 919
18.7.18 Motorola 921
18.7.19 MTI Micro Fuel Cells 922
18.7.20 NTT DoCoMo Inc. 923
18.7.21 P21 924
18.7.22 Palcan Fuel Cells 924
18.7.23 Plug Power 926
18.7.24 Proton Energy Systems 927
18.8 Companies Operating in the Smart Grid Sector 929
18.8.1 4Home 929
18.8.2 ABB 930
18.8.3 AT&T 932
18.8.4 Aclara 933
18.8.5 Advanced Control Systems 933
18.7.6 Advanced Telemetry 934
18.8.7 AlertMe 934
18.8.8 Ambient 935
18.8.9 Arcadian Networks 936
18.8.10 Arch Rock 937
18.8.11 Beacon Power 938
18.8.12 BPL Global 938
18.8.13 Cimetrics 939
18.8.14 Cisco Systems 940
18.8.15 Comverge 940
18.8.16 Consert 941
18.8.17 Control4 Corporation 941
18.8.18 Cooper Power Systems 942
18.8.19 Coulomb Technologies 942
18.8.19 Current Cost 942
18.8.20 Current Group 943
18.8.21 Dust Networks 944
18.8.22 Echelon Corporation 944
18.8.23 Echelon and T-Mobile USA 945
18.8.24 EcoLogic Analytics 946
18.8.25 Eka Systems 946
18.8.26 Elster Group 946
18.8.27 Ember Corp. 947
18.8.28 eMeter 947
18.8.29 EnergyHub 947
18.8.30 Energate 949
18.8.31 EnerNOC 950
18.8.32 Fat Spaniel Technologies 950
18.8.33 GE Energy 951
18.8.34 Google 951
18.8.35 Greenbox Technology 952
18.8.36 GridAgents 952
18.8.37 Grid Net 953
18.8.38 GRIDiant 953
18.8.39 GridPoint 953
18.8.40 IBM 954
18.8.41 Intelagrid 955
18.8.42 Intellon Corp. 955
18.8.43 Itron 956
18.8.44 Landis+Gyr 956
18.8.45 Microsoft 957
18.8.46 Millennial Net 957
18.8.47 Onzo 959
18.8.48 OpenPeak 959
18.8.49 Oracle 960
18.8.50 PowerGrid Communications 962
18.8.51 PowerIt Solutions 963
18.8.52 REGEN Energy 963
18.8.53 Sensus 963
18.8.54 Sentilla 964
18.8.55 Sequentric 964
18.8.56 Serveron 965
18.8.57 Siemens 966
18.8.58 Silver Spring Networks 966
18.8.59 Site Controls 968
18.8.60 SmartSynch 968
18.8.61 Tantalus Systems Corp. 969
18.8.62 Tendril Networks 969
18.8.63 Trilliant Networks 970
18.8.64 Tropos Networks 971
18.8.65 Verdiem 971
18.8.66 Viridity Energy 971
18.8.67 VYCON 972
18.8.68 Comverge 973
18.8.69 Industry Acquisitions and Deals 973
18.8.70 Smart Grid Industry Organizations 979
18.9 Companies Operating in the Renewable Energy Sector 1003
18.9.1 Bosch 1003
18.9.2 GE Energy 1004
18.9.3 Iberdrola Renovables, SA 1006
18.9.4 GreenHunter Energy, Inc 1007
18.9.5 Sharp Corporation 1008
18.9.6 Shell Renewables 1009
19. Appendix 1011
19.2 U.S. Renewable Energy Tradeshows 1011




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